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Te  Kauparaha. 




(Chief   of   the    Ngatitoa). 

W.  T.   L.  TRAVERS,   F.L.S. 


BY    THE 

REV.  J.  W.  STACK. 

Christehureh,    Wellington   and    Dunedin,    N.Z.  ; 
Melbourne   and    London  : 




Mr.  Traver's  chapters  on  Te  Rauparaha  were  first  published  in 
1872,  when  they  were  read  before  the  Wellington  Philosophical 

Mr.  Stack  found  considerable  difficulty  in  fixing  the  exact  dates 
of  the  occurrences  related  in  his  history,  owing  to  the  Maoris 
possessing  no  written  record  of  them.  If  Tamaiharanui  was  carried 
off  in  the  brig  Elizabeth  in  October  or  November,  1830,  Te  Rau- 
paraha's  first  raid  on  Kaiapoi  was  probably  made  either  towards  the 
close  of  1828  or  the  beginning  of  1829  ;  and  Kaiapoi  was  captured 
in  1831,  just  four  years  before  Hernpleman  started  his  whaling 
station  at  Pireka,  on  Banks  Peninsula,  and  twenty  years  before  the 
arrival  of  the  Canterbury  Pilgrims  in  the  first  four  ships. 

For  the  plan  of  the  site  of  the  old  pa  he  was  indebted  to  Colonel 
Lean.  The  plan  shows  that  a  considerable  space  in  front  of  the 
deep  ditch,  which  crossed  from  side  to  side  of  the  lagoon  in  front  of 
the  pa,  was  at  one  time  covered  with  houses.  These  buildings  were 
all  burnt,  and  the  fences  removed  by  the  Kaiapoi  people  themselves 
as  soon  as  they  became  aware  that  Te  Rauparaha  was  coming  to 
attack  them.  The  principal  entrances  to  the  pa  were  on  the  land 
side,  the  Kaitangata  gate  being  near  the  south-eastern  angle  of  the 
stockade,  and  the  Hiakarere  near  the  south-western  ;  the  Huirapa 
gate  was  on  the  western  side.  The  illustration  representing  the 
Old  Kaiapoi  Pa  shows  the  south-western  angle  where  Te  Pehi  was 
killed,  and  the  dwelling  houses  of  some  of  the  principal  chiefs. 

All  who  have  travelled  up  and  down  the  coast  of  New 
Zealand,  and  experienced  a  tossing  in  the  stormy  straits  of  Raukawa 
(Cook),  will  admit  that  the  Maoris  must  have  been  very  plucky  and 
skilful  navigators  to  be  able  to  traverse  such  stormy  waters  with 
safety,  and  to  accomplish  such  long  voyages  as  they  did  in  their 
canoes.  Part  of  Te  Rauparaha's  fleet  is  shown  on  page  215  in  the 
illustration  approaching  the  landing  place.  The  man  standing  up 
with  a  taiaha  in  his  hand  is  chanting  a  boat  song,  to  which  the 
paddles  beat  time.  The  peculiar  appearance  of  the  sails  of  the 


canoes  still  in  the  offing,  suggests  the  idea  that  they  are  upside 
down,  but  only  to  those  who  have  not  resided  long  enough  in  this 
country  to  know  that  it  is  a  very  common  occurrence  to  find 
things  topsy-turvy  in  New  Zealand. 

The  pattern  of  tattooing  on  Te  Pehi's  face,  affords  a  good 
specimen  of  the  art,  and  shows  to  what  perfection  it  had  attained. 
It  is  astonishing  to  think  that  such  an  elaborate  design  could  be 
marked  upon  a  living  human  face  by  such  a  painful  process  as  the 
native  artist  adopted,  without  making  a  mistake  of  any  kind  ;  and 
though  the  work  was  done  at  different  times,  the  symmetry  and 
uniformity  was  preserved  with  great  exactness.  The  artist  first 
drew  the  pattern  with  charcoal  on  the  face  of  the  person  to  be 
tattooed,  who  placed  his  head  on  the  operator's  lap  or  on  the  ground 
for  the  purpose  ;  and  if  it  was  approved  of,  he  proceeded  to  tap  the 
point  of  a  bone  needle — which  had  been  previously  dipped  in  ink 
made  of  a  particular  kind  of  charcoal — sufficiently  far  into  the  skin 
to  secure  an  indelible  mark  being  made ;  the  punctures  were 
placed  close  together,  and  as  the  skin  began  to  swell,  the  difficulty 
of  avoiding  a  mistake  must  have  been  very  great.  It  was  generally 
necessary  to  submit  to  several  sittings  before  the  tattooing  of  the 
face  was  completed.  But  brave  dandies  were  not  content  to  have  their 
faces  only  marked,  but  had  similar  patterns  on  a  larger  scale  drawn 
on  their  chests  and  thighs.  It  must  be  admitted  that  a  man  with 
such  a  pattern  drawn  on  his  face  as  Te  Pehi  had  was  entitled  to 
assume  the  role  of  a  critic  on  tattooing,  and  that  he  was  probably 
quite  correct  in  his  contemptuous  remarks  about  the  markings  on 
Mr.  Moimoi's  face,  to  which  reference  is  made  on  page  195. 

Mr.  Stack  purposely  retained  the  name  Kaiapoi  for  the  old  pa,  as 
it  was  the  commonly-adopted  abbreviation  for  Kaiapohia  in  use 
amongst  the  Maoris,  and  it  will  help  to  connect  the  modern  English 
town  with  the  old  Maori  town  of  the  same  name.  The  longer 
name,  Kaiapohia,  was  used  in  all  formal  speeches  and  in  poetical 
compositions ;  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  one  result  of  giving  it 
greater  publicity  amongst  Europeans  in  the  accompanying  narrative, 
will  be  to  induce  residents  in  the  Kaiapoi  district  to  call  themselves 
Kaiapohians  in  future,  instead  of  applying  to  themselves  the 
unmusical  name  by  which  they  have  hitherto  been  designated. 

Readers  who  know  nothing  of  Maori  are  reminded  that  the 
vowels  have  the  same  sound  as  in  Italian,  and  that  as  the  words 
are  spelt  phonetically  every  syllable  should  be  pronounced. 




I.  Habits  and  Customs  of  the  Maoris  ...  ...  9 

II.  Depopulation     ...             ...             ...  ...  ...  32 

III.  Childhood  and  Early  Manhood      ...  ...  ...  58 

IV.  The  Migration  from  Kawhia          ...  ...  ...  80 

V.  The  Occupation  of  Kapiti               ...  ...  ...  105 

VI.  The  Struggle  with  the  Ngaitahu    ...  ...  ...  129 

VII.  The  Last  Phase...             ...             ...  ...  ...  148 


I.  Kaiapoi  of  To-day             ...             ...  ...  ...  169 

II.  The  Kaiapoi  Pa                ...             ...  ...  ...  178 

III.  Te  Rauparaha's  First  Visit  to  Kaiapoi  ...  ...  191 

IV.  The  Raid  on  Akaroa — Life  at  Kaiapoi  ...  ...  199 

V.  The  Siege  of  Kaiapoi        ...             ...  ...  ...  212 

VI.   Onawe — Return  to  Kapiti               ...  ...  ...  232 

VII.  Retaliation— Peace  239 




Te  Bauparaha — Frontispiece 

The  Moa   ...           ...           ...  13 

Maori  Implements             ...  19 
Early  Settlement   in  Port 

Nicholson            ...           ...  25 

A  Maori  War  Expedition  ...  29 

War  Canoe             ...           ...  31 

Captain  Cook        ...           ...  35 

Ship's  Cove,  Queen  Char- 
lotte Sound         ...           ...  37 

New  Zealand  Flax              ...  39 
A  Fortified  Village,  Poverty 

Bay         43 

Source     of    the     Waikato 

River      ...           ...           ...  47 

Bust  of  Hongi        ...           ...  49 

Dusky  Sound         ...           ...  51 

Te  Whero  Whero ..            ...  55 

The  Mokau  River...           ...  59 

The  Coming  of  the  Maoris  61 

Landing  of  Marsden           ...  69 


Tamati  Waka  Nene           ...  73 

Bay  of  Islands,  1844            ...  83 

Te  Whero  Whero's  Pa       ...  87 

Te  Rangihaeata    ...           ...  91 

New  Plymouth  in  1843  ...  99 
Mouth  of  the  Wanganui 

River      ...           ...           ...  101 

War  Dance             ...           ...  107 

Tongariro  from  Lake 

Taupo    ...           ...           ...  Ill 

Maori  Swings         ...           ...  115 

The  Kaikoura  Mountains...  123 

TePehi      ...           ...           ...  125 

Tattooing  on  Te  Pehi's 

Face        ...           ...           ...  127 

Decorated  Head  of  Te  Rau- 

paraha's  War  Canoe       ...  131 

Taiaroa      ...           ...           ...  144 

Porirua  Bay           ...           ...  163 

Interior  of  the  Church  at 

Otaki  165 


The   Kaiapoi  Woollen 

Factory ...  ...           ...  172 

Old  Kaiapoi  ...           ...  181 

Cabbage  Tree  ...           ...  183 

Te  Rauparaha's  Fleet  ap- 
proaching Kaiapoi          ...  215 
The  Kaiapoi  Pa     ...           ...  221 

The  Kaiapoi  Monument    ...  243 






The  position  occupied  by  the  great  chief  Te  Eauparaha 
in  connection  with  the  establishment  and  earlier  progress 
of  the  New  Zealand  Company's  settlements  in  Cook 
Straits,  would  alone  justify  us  in  recording  all  that  can 
be  learnt  of  the  career  of  this  remarkable  man  ;  but 
when,  in  addition  to  the  interest  which  his  personal 
history  possesses  for  us  in  this  respect,  we  find  that  he 
took  a  very  important  part  in  the  events  that  occurred  in 
these  Islands  between  the  years  1818  and  1840 — leading  as 
they  did  to  an  immense  destruction  of  life  amongst  the 
then  existing  population,  and  to  profound  changes  in  the 
habits  and  character  of  the  survivors — it  becomes  im- 
portant, for  the  purposes  of  the  future  historian  of  the 
Colony,  that  we  should  preserve  the  most  authentic 


accounts  of  his  career,  as  well  as  of  that  of  the  other 
great  chiefs  who  occupied,  during  the  period  in  question, 
positions  of  power  and  influence  amongst  the  leading 
New  Zealand  tribes. 

As  with  Hongi,  Te  Waharoa,  and  Te  Whero  Whero  in 
the  North,  so  Te  Rauparaha  in  the  South  carried  on, 
during  the  interval  referred  to,  wars  of  the  most  ruthless 
and  devastating  character,  undertaken  partly  for  purposes 
of  conquest,  and  partly  for  the  gratification  of  that  innate 
ferocity  for  which  the  New  Zealanders  have  long  been 
remarked.  His  own  immediate  tribe,  the  Ngatitoa, 
though  insignificant  in  point  of  numbers,  when  compared 
with  most  of  the  leading  tribes  of  the  North  Island,  had 
long  been  celebrated  for  their  prowess  as  warriors  ;  and 
the  reliance  they  placed  upon  the  sagacity  and  valour 
of  their  chief  added  to  the  prestige  of  frequent  vic- 
tories, and,  above  all,  to  the  confidence  inspired  by  the 
possession  of  new  and  powerful  weapons,  unknown  in 
most  cases,  to  their  earlier  opponents,  led  them  un- 
hesitatingly to  engage  in  enterprises,  the  difficulties  and 
dangers  of  which  might  otherwise  well  have  deterred 
even  bolder  men. 

Nor  was  the  special  confidence  inspired  by  the 
possession  of  firearms  at  all  surprising,  when  we  re- 
member the  extraordinary  results  which  have  recently 
been  brought  about,  even  amongst  European  nations,  by 
mere  improvements  in  the  construction  of  the  weapons 
used  in  warfare.  In  the  case  of  Austria  for  example, 
the  power  of  one  of  the  greatest  military  nations  of  the 
world  was  almost  annihilated,  and  has  certainly  been 
permanently  reduced,  in  consequence  of  the  possession, 
by  their  recent  adversaries,  of  weapons  of  somewhat 
greater  precision  than  their  own.  We  cannot,  therefore, 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA          11 

wonder  at  the  results  which  would  be  produced  upon 
even  the  most  warlike  savage  people,  where  the  arms  on 
the  one  side  were  muskets,  and  on  the  other  mere  clubs 
and  wooden  spears  and  more  especially  where  those  who 
used  the  latter  had  had  no  previous  knowledge  of  the 
destructive  power  of  the  more  deadly  weapons  brought 
against  them.  My  narrative  will,  indeed,  often  recall 
the  graphic  language  of  De  Foe  when  describing  the 
effect  produced  by  the  guns  of  Eobinson  Crusoe  and 
Friday  upon  the  savages  engaged  in  butchering  their 
prisoners  :  They  were,  you  may  be  sure,"  he  says,  "  in 
a  dreadful  consternation,  and  all  of  them  who  were  not 
hurt  jumped  upon  their  feet,  but  did  not  immediately 
know  which  way  to  run  or  which  way  to  look,  for  they 
knew  not  from  whence  their  destruction  came." 

We  shall  find,  in  effect,  that  this  was  the  principal 
reason  why  the  wars  carried  on  by  Te  Eauparaha  were, 
notwithstanding  the  smallness  of  his  own  forces,  quite 
as  disastrous  to  the  numerous  tribes  which  occupied  the 
scenes  of  his  exploits,  as  those  which  were  waged  against 
their  own  neighbours  by  the  more  powerful  chieftains  in 
the  northern  parts  of  the  country,  and  that  Te  Eauparaha 
contributed  as  largely  as  most  of  the  former  to  the 
enormous  destruction  of  life  which  took  place  during  the 
two-and-twenty  years  referred  to. 

But  before  entering  upon  the  immediate  subject  of 
this  memoir,  I  have  thought  it  desirable  to  compile  a 
short  account,  showing  :  the  habits  and  character  of  the 
New  Zealands ;  their  laws  in  relation  to  the  acquisition 
and  ownership  of  land;  their  customs  in  war;  the 
general  condition  of  the  tribes  before  the  introduction 
of  firearms,  and  the  effects  which  that  circumstance  in 
their  history  produced  upon  them.  I  have  thought  it 


would  be  satisfactory  to  my  readers  that  I  should  adopt 
this  course,  not  merely  as  a  matter  of  speculative 
interest,  but  because  some  knowledge  upon  these  subjects 
will  really  be  found  necessary  to  a  full  appreciation  of 
the  events  I  propose  to  relate,  and  of  the  characters  of 
the  chief  actors  in  those  events. 

I  propose  in  the  present  chapter  to  inquire,  shortly, 
into  the  habits  and  customs  of  the  New  Zealanders  in 
especial  relation  to  the  ownership  of  land,  and  to  war, 
and  then  to  offer  some  observations  regarding  their 
social  and  individual  characteristics ;  and  I  may  at  once 
say  that  in  compiling  the  following  notice  of  these 
matters  I  have  availed  myself  largely  of  White's 
"  Lectures  on  Maori  Customs  and  Superstititions,"  and 
of  Colenso's  "Essay  on  the  Maori  Eaces," which,  though 
by  no  means  exhaustive,  are  sufficient  to  enable  those 
who  have  had  any  opportunities  of  personal  observation, 
and  who  may,  therefore,  read  them  by  the  light  of  locally 
acquired  knowledge,  to  obtain  reasonably  clear  ideas  upon 
these  points. 

It  would  appear  from  the  facts  collected  by  these  and 
other  writers,  and  from  traditions  of  the  New  Zealanders 
themselves,  that  from  the  very  earliest  times  they  clearly 
understood  the  value  of  the  possession  of  land.  This 
was,  of  course,  naturally  to  be  expected  in  a  people 
dependent  upon  the  cultivation  of  the  soil  for  a 
considerable  proportion  of  their  ordinary  means  of  sub- 
sistence, for  although  New  Zealand,  as  a  rule,  is  a  fertile 
country,  and  possesses  a  mild  climate,  and  is  almost 
everywhere  covered  with  a  dense  vegetation,  its  natural 
vegetable  productions,  suitable  for  the  proper  sustenance 
of  man,  are  extremely  limited  ;  and  the  Natives  would 
often  have  suffered  from  want  if  they  had  been  wholly 


dependent  for  their  supplies  of  food  upon  the  indigenous 
vegetation,  and  upon  the  uncertain  results  of  their  rat- 
chases  and  their  fisheries.  No  doubt,  whilst  the  Moa 
still  abounded  in  various  parts  of  both  Islands,  it  afforded 
them  a  better  class  of  animal  food  than  any  other  they 
possessed  before  the  introduction  of  the  pig;  but  we  have 
no  positive  information  as  to  the  date  at  which  this 

source  of  supply 
failed  them,  nor  do 
I  think  the  materials 
for  the  determin- 
ation of  this  ques- 
tion are  at  all  likely 
to  lead  to  any 
certain  results  upon 
the  point.  There 
can  be  no  doubt, 
indeed,  that  long 
before  the  time  of 
Cook,  the  most  valu- 
able articles  of  food 
used  by  the  Maoris 
were  not  indigenous, 
as,  for  example,  the 
Kumara  (Convol- 
vulus chrysorhizus], 
the  Taro  (Caladium  esculentum) ,  and  the  gourd-like  Hue, 
in  the  growth  of  each  of  which  a  special  and  most  careful 
mode  of  treatment  was  necessary.  We  find,  accordingly, 
that  a  very  large  part  of  the  time  of  the  people  of  all 
classes  was  taken  up  in  these  cultivations,  as  well  as  in 
the  preparation  of  such  indigenous  substances  as  were  at 
all  suitable  for  food  ;  for,  independently  of  the  immediate 

The  Moa. 


family  wants,  the  hospitalities  of  the  tribes — to  which  all 
the  members  must  necessarily  contribute,  especially  on 
solemn  occasions — led  to  the  expenditure  of  large  stores 
of  provisions.  As  I  have  before  observed,  it  was  natural 
that  a  people  whose  ordinary  wants  necessitated,  the 
cultivation  of  the  soil  to  any  large  extent,  should  attach 
great  value  to  the  possession  of  land ;  and  we  find,  in 
effect,  that  every  tribe  claimed  its  own  special  domain, 
and  preserved  the  most  accurate  knowledge  of  the  extent 
and  limit  of  its  territorial  rights. 

"  There  is  no  point,"  says  White,  "on  which  a  New 
Zealander's  indignation  can  be  more  effectually  roused 
than  by  disputing  his  title  to  land.  This  love  for  his 
land  is  not,  as  many  would  suppose,  the  love  of  a  child 
for  his  toys  ;  the  title  of  a  New  Zealander  to  his  land  is 
connected  with  many  and  powerful  associations  in  his 
mind.  He  is  not,  of  course,  what  we  call  a  civilized 
man ;  but  in  dealing  with  him  we  deal  with  a  man  of 
powerful  intellect,  whose  mind  can  think  and  reason  as 
logically  on  any  subject  with  which  he  is  acquainted,  as 
his  more  favoured  European  brethren,  and  whose  love  for 
the  homes  of  his  fathers  is  associated  with  the  deeds  of 
their  bravery,  with  the  feats  of  his  boyhood,  and  the 
long  rest  of  his  ancestors  for  generations. 

"  The  New  Zealander  is  not  accustomed  to  law,  and 
parchment,  or  to  wills  and  bequests  in  gaining  knowledge 
of  or  receiving  a  title  to  the  lands  of  his  fathers;  nor 
would  he  quietly  allow  any  stranger  to  teach  him  what 
lands  were  his,  or  what  lands  were  not ;  what  were  the 
names  of  the  boundaries,  the  creeks,  mountains,  and 
rivers  in  his  own  district.  The  thousand  names  within 
the  limits  of  his  hereditary  lands  were  his  daily  lesson 
from  childhood.  The  son  of  a  chief  invariably  attended 


his  father,  or  his  grandfather,  in  all  his  fishing,  trapping, 
or  spearing  excursions ;  and  it  was  in  these  that  he 
learnt,  by  ocular  demonstration,  the  exact  boundaries  of 
his  lands,  and  especially  heard  their  various  names. 

"  It  was  a  custom  with  the  Maoris  in  ancient  times  to 
eat  the  rat — a  rat  indigenous  to  this  country,  and  caught 
in  traps  set  on  the  tops  of  the  mountain  ranges.  This 
was  a  source  of  part  of  their  daily  food,  and  it  was 
therefore,  with  them,  a  point  of  great  importance  to 
occupy  every  available  portion  of  their  lands  with  these 
traps  ;  and  as  most  of  the  tribal  boundaries  are  along  the 
range  of  the  highest  hills,  or  mountains,  and  as  these 
were  the  common  resort  of  the  rat,  every  New  Zealand 
chief  soon  naturally  became  acquainted  with  the  exact 
boundary  of  his  land  claims.  He  did  not,  however,  limit 
these  claims  to  the  dry  land — they  extended  to  the  shell- 
fish, and  even  out  to  sea,  where  he  could  fish  for  cod  or 
shark,  or  throw  his  net  for  mackerel ;  nor  did  he  go 
inadvertently  to  these  places,  and  trust  to  chance  for 
finding  his  fishing  grounds — he  had  land  marks,  and 
each  fishing-ground  and  land-mark  had  its  own  peculiar 
name ;  these  to  him  were  more  than  household  words ; 
his  fathers  had  fished  there,  and  he  himself  and  his  tribe 
alone  knew  these  names  and  land-marks.  Where  a 
creek  was  the  dividing  boundary  of  his  lands,  this  was 
occupied  by  eel-dams.  These  dams  were  not  of  wicker- 
work,  that  might  be  carried  away  by  a  flood — labour 
and  art  were  bestowed  upon  their  construction,  so  that 
generations  might  pass,  all  of  whom  in  turn  might  put 
their  ell-basket  down  by  the  carved  and  red-ochred 
totara  post  which  their  great-grandfather  had  placed 
there.  When  the  dividing  boundary  between  two  tribes 
ran  along  a  valley,  landmarks  were  put  up ;  these 


consisted  generally  of  a  pile  of  stones  or  a  hole  dug  in 
the  ground,  to  which  a  name  was  given  significant  of  the 
cause  which  gave  rise  to  such  boundary  being  agreed  to  ; 
such,  for  instance,  as  Te  Taupaki — the  name  given  to  the 
dividing  boundary  on  the  West  Coast  between  the 
Ngatiwhatua  and  Tainui  tribes — which  means  the  year 
of  peace,  or  the  peaceful  way  in  which  a  dispute  is 
adjusted.  This  boundary  had  its  origin  from  a  chief  of 
the  Ngatiwhatua  called  Poutapuaka,  going  from  Kaipara 
to  take  possession  of  land  with  his  paraoa,  or  bone  spear. 
His  intention  was  to  go  along  the  coast  as  far  as  the 
quantity  of  food  which  he  carried  would  enable  him  to 
travel,  and  return  from  the  point  at  which  his  food  was 
expended ;  he  had  succeeded  in  taking  possession  of  the 
whole  of  the  line  of  sandy  coast  called  Eangatira,  and 
on  arriving  at  the  top  of  the  hill,  now  known  as  Te 
Taupaki,  he  met  the  Tainui  chief  Haowhenua.  They 
both  halted,  sticking  their  spears  in  the  ground,  and 
enquiring  of  each  other  the  object  of  their  being  there. 
They  found  that  they  were  both  on  the  same  errand,  and 
at  once  agreed  that  this  meeting  point  should  be  the 
boundary  dividing  the  lands  of  the  tribes  whereof  each 
was  the  representative.  The  Ngatiwhatua  chief  at  once 
dug  a  hole  with  his  bone  spear,  and  the  boundary  so 
established  has  remained  to  this  day. 

"I  may  state,"  adds  White,  "without  fear  of  con- 
tradiction, that  there  is  not  one  inch  of  land  in  the  New 
Zealand  Islands  which  is  not  claimed  by  the  Maoris,  and 
I  may  also  state  that  there  is  not  a  hill  or  valley,  stream, 
river,  or  forest,  which  has  not  a  name — the  index  of 
some  point  of  the  Maori  history.  As  has  been  stated 
above,  the  New  Zealander  knows  with  as  much  certainty 
the  exact  boundary  of  his  own  land,  as  we  could  do  from 


the  distances  and  bearings  given  by  a  surveyor.  But 
these  boundaries  are  liable  to  be  altered  at  times  ;  for 
instance,  when  lands  are  taken  by  a  conquering  tribe,  or 
are  given  by  a  chief  for  assistance  rendered  to  him  by 
another  tribe  in  time  of  war,  or  when  land  given  to  the 
female  branch  of  a  family  again  becomes,  after  a  certain 
time,  the  property  of  the  male  branch  of  the  family.  In 
certain  cases,  also,  lands  are  ceded  by  a  tribe  for  a 
specific  purpose,  with  certain  restrictions,  and  a  tenure 
conditional  on  certain  terms  being  complied  with." 

Colenso,  in  his  "  Essay  on  the  Maori  Eaces,"  tells  us 
that  their  views  of  property  were,  in  the  main,  both 
simple  and  just,  and  in  some  respects  (even  including 
those  most  abnormal)  wonderfully  accorded  with  what 
once  obtained  in  England.  Amongst  them,  property 
was  usually  divided  into  two  classes,  namely,  peculiar 
and  common.  Every  man,,  for  example,  had  a  right  to 
his  own,  as  against  every  one  else,  although  this  right 
was  often  overcome  by  might.  A  man  of  middle,  or  low 
rank,  caught,  perhaps,  some  fine  fish,  or  was  very  lucky 
in  snaring  birds — such  were  undoubtedly  his  own ;  but 
if  his  superior,  or  elder  chief,  wished  or  asked  for  them, 
he  dared  not  refuse,  even  if  he  would.  At  the  same 
time,  such  a  gift,  if  gift  it  might  be  termed,  was  (accord- 
ing to  custom)  sure  to  be  repaid  with  interest,  hence  it 
was  readily  yielded.  The  whole  of  a  man's  movable 
property  was  also  his  own ;  it  included  his  house  and 
fences  as  well  as  all  his  smaller  goods.  All  that  a 
freeman  made  or  caught,  or  obtained,  or  raised  by  agri- 
culture, were  his  own  ;  although  his  house,  created  by 
himself,  was  his  own,  yet  if  not  on  his  own  land  (rarely 
the  case)  he  could  not  hold  it  against  the  owner  of  that 
spot,  unless  such  use  had  been  openly  allowed  to  him  by 


the  owner  before  all  (i  te  aroaro  o  te  tokomaha).  So  a 
plantation  planted  by  himself,  if  not  on  his  own  land 
•(also  a  rare  thing),  he  would  have  to  leave  after  taking 
his  crops,  on  being  ordered  to  do  so  ;  but  not  so  if  he 
had  originally,  and  with  permission,  felled  the  forest,  or 
reclaimed  that  land  from  the  wild  ;  in  which  case,  he 
would  retain  it  for  life,  or  as  long  as  he  pleased,  and  very 
likely  his  descendants  after  him,  To  land,  a  man  ac- 
quired a  peculiar  right  in  many  ways  : — 

1.  Definite — -(a)  By    having  been  born   on   it,  or,    in 
their  expressive  language,  "  where  his  navel-string  was 
cut,"  as  his  first    blood  (ever  sacred  in  their  eyes)  had 
been  shed  there.       (b)  By  having   had   his    secundines 
buried   there    (this,  however   was   much    more  partial). 

(c)  By  a  public  invitation  from  the  owner  to  dwell  on  it. 

(d)  By  having  first  cultivated  it  by  permission,     (e)  By 
having  had  his  blood  shed  upon  it.     (/)  By  having  had 
the  body  or  bones  of  his  deceased  father  or  mother,  or 
uterine  brother    or    sister,    deposited    or    rested    on    it. 
(g)  By  having  had  a  near  relative  killed  or  roasted  on  it. 
(h)  By  having   been  bitterly  cursed  in  connection  with 
that  piece  of  land,  e.g. — this  oven  is  for   thy  body,    or 
head  ;  on  that  tree  thy  liver  shall  be  fixed  to  rot ;  thy 
skull  shall  hold  the  cooked  birds,  or  berries  of  this  wood. 
(i)  Or  by  the  people  of  the  district  using   for  any  pur- 
pose a  shed  which  had  been  temporarily  put  up  there, 
and  used  by  a  chief  in  travelling. 

2.  Indefinite — (a)  By    having    been   invited  to   come 
there  by  the  chief  with  a  party  to  dwell  (lit.,  having  had 
their  canoe  in  passing  called  to  the  shore),     (b)  Through 
his  wife  by  marriage  ;  but   such  would  be  only  a  quasi 
life-interest  to  him,  i.e.,  during  her  life  and  the  infancy 
of  the  children,  as,  in  case  of  children,  they  would  take 



all    their    mother's  right.       (c)    By   having   assisted    in 
conquering  it.     (d)  by  having  aided  with  food,  a  canoe, 

p, ...„     a   spear,    etc., 

an  armed 
party  who 
subseque  n  1 1  y 
became  con- 
querors of  it. 
All  these 
equally  ap- 
plied, though 
he  should  be- 
long to  a 
different  tribe 
or  sub-tribe. 

3.  Beyond 
all  these,  how- 
ever, was  the 
right  by  gift 
or  transfer, 
and  by  inher- 
itance, which 
not  unfre- 
quently,  was 
peculiar  and 
private.  This 
(which  has  of 
late  years  been 
much  con- 
tested, and  too 
often,  it  is 
feared,  by  ignorant  and  interested  men,  or  by  those  who 
have  too  readily  believed  what  the  talkative  younger  New 

Maori  Implements. 

1.  Flaking  punch ;  2.  Saw;  3.  Knife;  4.  Cutting 

tool;    5.   Hammer;    6.   Boring  tool;    7.   Adze; 

8.  Spear  scraper  ;  9.  Chisel ;  10.  Adze  sharpener  ; 

11.  Spear  polisher. 

20          THE    STIEEING   TIMES   OF   TE    EAUPAEAHA 

Zealanders  now  say),  may  clearly  be  proved  beyond  all 
doubt : —  (l)  By  the  acts  of  their  several  ancestors 
(great-grandfathers)  to  their  children,  from  whom  the 
present  sub-tribes  derive  their  sub-tribal  names,  and 
claim  their  boundaries ;  such  ancestors  divided  and  gave 
those  lands  simply  to  each  individual  of  their  family, 
which  division  and  alienation,  however  unfairly  made, 
has  never  been  contested.  (2)  By  their  ancient  transfers 
(gifts  or  sales)  of  land  made  by  individuals  of  one  tribe 
to  individuals  of  another,  as  related  by  themselves,  from 
which  gift  or  alienation,  in  many  instances,  they  deduce 
their  present  claims.  (3)  By  their  earliest  (untampered) 
sales  and  transfers  of  land  to  Missionaries  and  to  others» 
which  were  not  unfrequently  done  by  one  native  (as  was 
notably  the  case  in  the  first  alienation  of  land  by  deed 
to  Marsden,  at  the  Bay  of  Islands,  in  1815).  Although 
the  foreign  transferees  (not  knowing  the  native  custom) 
often  wished  others,  being  co-proprietors,  to  sign  the 
document  of  transfer ;  and  this  by-the-by,  came  to  be 
looked  upon  as  the  New  Zealand  custom  ;  whence  came 
the  modern  belief  that  all  must  unite  in  a  sale  ;  and 
thence  it  followed  that  one  could  not  sell  his  own  land ! 
But  such  is  not  of  New  Zealand  origin. 

It  will  be  observed,  that  there  is  some  difference  of 
opinion  between  the  two  writers  from  whom  I  have 
quoted,  as  to  the  existence  of  definite  individual  rights  of 
property  in  land,  as  distinguished  from  tribal,  or 
common,  or  indefinite  rights  ;  but  as  this  is  a  point 
which  little  concerns  the  purpose  of  my  narrative,  I 
shall  do  no  more  than  refer  to  it  here.  The  extracts 
above  given,  at  all  events  sufficiently  show  that  the 
Maoris  always  attached  the  greatest  value  to  the 
ownership  of  the  soil,  and  took  the  utmost  care  to 


preserve  an  accurate  knowledge  of  the  boundaries  of  the 
tribal  estate. 

The  very  value,  however,  attached  to  the  possession  of 
land  naturally  led  to  aggression  and  to  the  use  of  various 
other  means  of  acquiring  title  to  it ;  and  not  only  in 
many  of  their  traditions,  but  also  in  all  other  accounts  of 
the  habits  of  the  race,  we  find  mention  of  wars  under- 
taken for  purposes  of  conquest,  and  of  marriage  alli- 
ances being  contracted,  and  other  devices  resorted  to, 
for  the  purpose  of  peacefully  securing  additions  to  the 
tribal  territory.  Upon  the  first  of  these  points,  White 
tells  us  that  a  tribe,  in  going  to  war,  had  one  or  more  of 
three  objects  in  view  : — 1.  To  take  revenge  for  some  real 
or  supposed  injury.  2.  To  obtain  as  many  slaves  as 
possible.  3.  To  extend  its  territory.  "  A  tribe,"  he 
says,  '  seldom  .became  extinct  in  consequence  of  war, 
but  when  this  resulted,  the  conquering  tribe  took  all 
their  lands,  and  from  the  slaves  taken  in  war  the 
conquerors  learnt  the  boundaries  of  the  land  thus  taken. 
But,  if  a  portion  of  the  tribe  escaped,  their  claim  held 
good  to  as  great  an  extent  of  land  as  they  had  the 
courage  to  occupy.  If,  however,  they  could  manage  to 
keep  within  their  own  tribal  boundary,  and  elude  their 
enemy,  their  right  to  the  whole  of  the  land  held  good. 
Hence  the  meaning  of  a  sentence  so  often  used  by  old 
chiefs  in  their  land  disputes  :  /  ko  tonu  taku  ahi  i  runga 
i  taku  whenua  (my  fire  has  been  kept  burning  on  my 
land)  ;  meaning  that  other  tribes  in  war  had  never  been 
able  to  drive  them  entirely  off  their  ancestral  claims. 

"  The  right  to  lands  taken  by  conquest  rests  solely  on 
the  conquering  party  actually  occupying  the  taken  dis- 
trict, to  the  utter  exclusion  of  its  original  owners  or 
other  tribes ;  thus,  in  the  war  of  the  celebrated  Hongi, 


he  drove  all  the  tribes  out  of  the  Auckland  district  into- 
Waikato,  and  even  as  far  as  Taranaki ;  but  though  the 
whole  district  thereby  became  his,  yet,  as  he  did  not 
occupy  it,  the  conquered  tribes,  on  his  return  to  the 
North,  came  back  to  their  own  lands  ;  and  we  found 
them  in  occupation  when  Auckland  was  established  as 
an  English  settlement. 

Again,  in  the  case  of  a  tribe  which  had  been  con- 
quered and  had  become  extinct,  with  the  exception  of 
those  that  had  been  made  slaves  by  the  conquering 
party,  these  slaves  could,  by  purchase,  recover  the 
ownership  of  their  tribal  rights  to  land,  or  they  could  be 
liberated  and  return  to  their  own  lands  on  a  promise  of 
allegiance  to  the  conquerors,  i-endering  them  any  assist- 
ance, if  required,  in  times  of  war,  and  supplying  them, 
for  the  first  few  years  after  their  return,  with  a  certain 
amount  of  rats,  fish,  and  fern-root ;  and  eventually,  on 
presenting  the  conquerors  with  a  greenstone  battleaxe 
(the  mere  pounamu),  they  were  again  allowed  to  be  called 
a  tribe,  and  claim  the  land  of  their  fathers  as  though 
they  had  never  been  conquered. 

"  The  claims  in  connection  with  lands  given  to  a  tribe 
for  assistance  rendered  in  war  are  more  complicated 
than  any  other.  Although  the  land  was  given  to  the 
leader  of  the  tribe  rendering  such  assistance,  it  did  not 
thereby  become  vested  in  that  individual  leader,  inas- 
much as  the  assisting  tribe  were  seldom  alone,  but  had 
brought  their  allies,  and,  if  these  allies  had  lost  any  of 
their  chiefs  in  battle,  each  relative  of  the  deceased  chiefs 
had  a  claim  in  the  land  thus  given  ;  and  each  relative  of 
any  chief  who  had  been  killed,  of  the  tribe  to  whose 
leader  the  land  was  given,  had  also  a  claim.  But  the 
complication  of  land  claims  does  not  end  even  here.  It 


was  necessary  that  the  land  given  should  be  occupied  so 
that  possession  of  it  be  retained,  and  as  the  assisted  and 
assisting  tribes  became  related  by  intermarriage,  the 
tribal  lands  of  the  assisted  tribe  were  claimed  by  the 
issue  of  these  marriages,  according  to  the  laws  relating  to 
the  ownership  of  land  as  affected  by  the  marriage  tie,  so 
that  after  a  few  generations  their  respective  claims  not 
unfrequently  became  the  cause  of  another  war. 

"  An  instance  of  this  happened  about  four  generations 
ago.  One  of  the  northern  tribes  rendered  assistance  in 
time  of  war  to  a  southern  tribe,  now  residing  not  far 
from  Auckland,  and  a  portion  of  land  was  given  to  the 
northern  tribe ;  shortly  afterwards  the  daughter  of  the 
southern  chief  was  taken  in  marriage  by  one  of  the 
chiefs  of  the  northern  tribe  ;  the  two  sisters  of  this 
woman  were  married  to  chiefs  of  the  southern  tribe,  and 
thereupon  their  children's  claims  held  good  ;  but  when 
the  time  came  for  the  offspring  of  the  sister,  who  had 
married  the  northern  chief,  to  give  up  their  land,  the 
colonization  of  New  Zealand  had  commenced,  and  land 
became  a  marketable  commodity.  This  offspring  re- 
tained their  claims  against  all  right  and  argument,  and 
to  this  day  their  is  a  rankling  feeling  between  the  tribes 
concerned ;  and  if,  in  this  disputed  land,  incautious 
dealing  by  Europeans  takes  place,  it  would  probably 
result  in  a  Maori  war. 

"  The  war  in  the  Bay  of  Plenty  which  has  been 
continued  until  very  lately  between  certain  chiefs,  also 
originated  in  a  like  cause  ;  the  contending  parties  were 
all  of  one  tribe,  and  sprung  from  one  ancestor,  but,  by 
intermarriage,  some  have  a  more  direct  claim  than 
others.  The  descendants,  who,  by  intermarriage,  are 
related  to  other  tribes,  have  made  an  equal  claim  to  the 


land  over  which  they  have  but  a  partial  claim,  and 
resistance  to  this  was  the  cause  of  the  war.  Disputes  of 
this  kind  were  not  easily  unravelled.  I  believe  that 
were  it  possible  to  teach  the  Maoris  the  English 
language,  and  then  bring  them  into  some  Court,  allowing 
each  contending  party  to  plead  his  cause  in  such  a 
dispute  as  I  have  mentioned,  not  according  to  English 
law,  but  according  to  Maori  custom,  both  sides  would, 
according  to  native  genealogy  and  laws,  make  out  their 
respective  cases  so  clearly  that  it  would  take  a  judge  and 
jury,  possessed  of  more  than  human  attainments,  to 
decide  the  ownership  of  the  land. 

"  While  speaking  about  lands  claimed  by  conquest,  I 
will  give  a  few  instances  of  land  claimed  by  the  offspring 
of  those  male  or  female  chiefs  who  have  been  made 
slaves  in  war.  It  would  not  generally  be  supposed  that 
lands  disposed  of  at  the  southern  end  of  this  Island 
would  affect  any  native  at  the  northern  end  of  it,  yet 
such  is  the  case.  A  chieftainess  who  was  taken  slave 
from  the  south  by  the  Ngapuhi  and  other  northern 
tribes,  became  the  wife  of  a  Ngapuhi  chief ;  her  claim 
stood  in  the  way  of  completing  the  sale  of  the  land,  and 
it  was  not  until  the  consent  of  her  son  by  the  Ngapuhi 
chief  was  gained,  that  the  land  could  be  disposed  of  by 
the  natives  residing  on  it,  and  to  him,  in  due  course  of 
time,  a  portion  of  the  payment  was  transmitted. 

"  Again,  a  chief  who  was  taken  slave  from  the  Bay  of 
Plenty  by  the  northern  tribes,  having  taken  a  northern 
woman  to  wife,  and  having  a  family,  his  relatives  from 
the  Bay  of  Plenty  made  presents  to  the  chiefs  by  whom 
he  was  taken,  and  procured  his  return  home ;  but  he 
was  obliged,  according  to  Maori  laws  of  title  to  land,  to 
leave  his  wife  and  daughters  with  the  Ngapuhi  people, 



26          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA 

for  if  he  had  taken  them  with  him,  they  would  have  lost 
their  claim  to  land  at  Ngapuhi,  and  would  not  be  allowed 
any  claim  to  land  in  the  Bay  of  Plenty  ;  while  his  son, 
whom  he  took  back  with  him,  now  claims,  by  right  of 
his  grandfather,  an  equal  right  to  the  lands  of  the  Bay  of 
Plenty  tribe. 

"  Again  one  of  the  northern  chiefs  having  taken  to 
wife  a  woman  whom  he  had  made  slave  from  Taranaki, 
and  having  a  son  by  her,  this  son  returned  to  the  tribe  of 
his  mother  and  claimed  as  his  right,  derived  from  his 
grandfather,  a  share  in  their  land,  which  was  not 
disputed,  because,  as  I  have  before  stated,  the  great- 
grandchild in  the  female  line  has  a  claim  to  land.  I 
remember  another  instance  of  this  :  a  certain  block  of 
land  was  sold  by  a  tribe  near  Auckland,  and  when  the 
purchase  money  was  portioned  out  amongst  the  claim- 
ants, a  northern  chief  rose  up  and  rehearsed  hi& 
genealogy,  by  which  he  proved  that  he  was  the  great- 
grandchild (in  the  female  line)  of  one  of  the  claimants  of 
the  block  sold.  He  thereupon,  as  a  matter  of  course 
received  a  part  of  the  purchase  money.  He  was  a 
northern  chief,  and  had  only  been  known  to  the  settlers 
by  name." 

In  addition  to  the  above  points,  which  more  especially 
affect  the  events  of  my  narrative,  White  gives  us  details 
of  other  modes  of  acquiring  title  to  land,  with  illustrative 
cases  of  the  most  interesting  kind ;  but  there  is  one 
custom  which  he  does  not  refer  to,  and  which  was 
mentioned  to  me  by  Wi  Tako  Ngatata,  namely,  that  in 
some  cases  a  conquered  tribe,  absolutely  driven  from  its 
lands,  was  formally  restored  to  possession  by  the 
conquerors.  He  stated,  as  an  instance,  that  this  was 
done  in  the  Wairarapa,  after  the  Ngatikahungunu  had 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA          27 

been  forced  to  the  northward  by  the  Ngatiawa,  under 
E  Puni  and  himself,  in  revenge  for  some  isolated  acts  of 
violence  perpetrated  upon  members  of  their  own  tribe. 
He  informed  me  that  this  proceeding  was  always  a  highly 
formal  and  ceremonious  one,  and  was  carried  out,  in  the 
instance  in  question,  in  consequence  of  many  inter-r 
marriages  having  taken  place  between  the  two  tribes 
since  the  settlement  of  the  Ngatiawa  near  Port  Nichol- 
son, and  of  the  absence  of  any  desire  on  the  part  of  the 
latter  to  push  their  vengeance  to  extremity. 

It  would  lead  me  too  far,  were  I  to  enter  more  at 
length  upon  the  points  above  referred  to,  and  I  will  now 
proceed  shortly  to  notice  some  of  the  leading  features  in 
the  character  and  habits  of  the  natives  in  other  respects. 
There  can  be  little  doubt  that,  both  in  intellectual  and 
physical  capacity,  the  Maori  occupies  a  high  position 
amongst  savage  people  ;  but  I  cannot  agree  with  White 
when  he  says,  "  that  in  dealing  with  him,  we  deal  with 
a  man  of  powerful  intellect."  I  admit  that  he  possesses 
much  intelligence,  and  a  quick  perception,  but  he  is 
wanting  in  one  of  the  chiefest  characteristics  of  the 
civilized  man — a  characteristic  acquired  only  by  a  long 
course  of  national  education — namely,  the  power  of  fore- 
seeing the  result  of  these  special  classes  of  actions  to 
which  his  contact  with  Europeans  gives  the  greatest 
importance.  It  is  not,  however,  altogether  in  this 
respect  that  I  propose  to  view  his  character,  for  the 
principal  events  in  my  narrative  took  place  before  the 
colonization  of  the  Islands  ;  and  their  want  of  foresight 
when  dealing  with  the  agents  of  the  New  Zealand 
Company  would  not  have  produced  effects  injurious  to 
them,  but  for  the  occurrence  of  events  which  have  taken 
place  since  the  death  of  Te  Ruaparaha. 


"  Their  ordinary  course  of  life,"  says  Maning,  speak- 
ing of  the  natives,  "  when  not  engaged  in  warfare,  was 
regular,  and  not  necessarily  unhealthy ;  their  labour, 
though  constant  in  one  shape  or  other,  and  compelled  by 
necessity,  was  not  too  heavy.  In  the  morning,  but  not 
early,  they  descended  from  the  hill  pa  to  the  cultivations 
in  the  low  grounds  ;  they  went  in  a  body,  armed  like 
men  going  to  battle,  the  spear  or  club  in  one  hand,  and 
the  agricultural  instrument  in  the  other.  The  women 
followed.  Long  before  night  (it  was  counted  unlucky  to 
work  till  dark)  they  returned  to  the  hill  in  a  reversed 
order ;  the  women,  slaves,  and  lads,  bearing  fuel  and 
water  for  the  night,  in  front ;  these  also  bore,  probably, 
heavy  loads  of  kumara  or  other  provisions. 

In  the  time  of  year  when  the  crops,  being  planted  and 
growing,  did  not  call  for  their  attention,  the  whole  tribe 
would  remove  to  some  fortified  hill,  at  the  side  of  some 
river,  or  on  the  coast,  where  they  would  pass  months  in 
fishing  and  making  nets,  clubs,  spears,  and  implements 
of  various  descriptions  ;  the  women,  in  all  spare  times, 
making  mats  for  clothing,  or  baskets  to  carry  the  crop  of 
kumara  in,  when  fit  to  dig.  There  was  very  little  idle- 
ness, and  to  be  called  '  lazy  '  was  a  great  reproach. 

It  is  to  be  observed,  that  for  several  months  the  crops 
•could  be  left  unguarded  with  perfect  safety,  for  the 
Maori,  as  a  general  rule,  never  destroyed  growing  crops, 
or  attacked  their  owners  in  a  regular  manner  until  the 
«rops  were  nearly  at  full  perfection,  so  that  they  might 
afford  subsistence  to  the  invaders ;  and,  consequently, 
the  end  of  the  summer  all  over  the  country  was  a  time 
of  universal  preparation  for  battle,  either  offensive  or 
•defensive,  the  crops  being  then  near  maturity." 

30          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPABAHA 

This  picture  exhibits  a  very  unhappy  condition  of 
existence,  for  it  is  manifest  that  no  race,  in  such  a 
position,  could  ever  rise  further  in  the  scale  of  civili- 
zation (paradoxical  as  the  language  may  appear)  than 
was  sufficient  to  improve  their  knowledge  of  the  art  of 
war.  But,  notwithstanding  this  unsatisfactory  condition 
of  the  tribes,  the  people  appear,  in  their  social  and 
domestic  relations,  to  have  been,  generally  speaking, 
good  natured  and  hospitable,  though  being  little,  if  at  all, 
fettered  by  conscientious  motives  or  restraints,  they 
were  at  all  times  easily  roused  to  acts  of  violence  and 
cruelty.  With  them,  moreover,  revenge  was  a  most 
persistent  feeling,  and  the  duty  of  ministering  to  it  was 
considered  of  sacred  obligation. 

Their  love  of  war  was  universal  and  intense,  and  in  its 
prosecution  they  were  as  reckless  of  the  consequences  to 
themselves  as  they  were  of  the  results  to  their  foes. 
"Nothing,"  says  Mr.  Maning,  "was  considered  so 
valuable  or  respectable  as  strength  and  courage;  and  to 
acquire  property  by  war  and  plunder  was  more  honour- 
able, and  also  more  desirable,  than  by  labour."  Their 
cruelty  to  their  prisoners  was  frightful.  Cannibalism 
was  considered  glorious,  and  this  habit  led  not  only  to 
the  most  dreadful  atrocities,  but  also  to  a 'degree  of 
callousness,  in  regard  to  the  sufferings  inflicted  upon 
others,  which  appears  to  be  utterly  incompatible  with, 
and  renders  singularly  remarkable,  the  kindliness  of 
feeling  which  they  constantly  exhibited  in  their  domestic 
relations.  It  is  clear,  however,  that  whatever  good 
qualities  the  Maori  possessed  in  his  quiet  and  social 
moments  were  utterly  lost  when  he  was  acting  under  the 
impulse  of  passion.  Colenso,  in  describing  their  charac- 
ter, particularly  alludes  to  their  love  for  children,  and 



remarks  that  "  nothing  more  clearly  shows  the  truth  of 
the  old  adage,  '  the  best  corrupted  is  the  very  worst,' 
than  that  a  party  of  New  Zealanders  should  be  so  carried 
away  by  the  diabolical  frenzy  of  the  moment  as  wholly 
to  forget  their  strongly  and  highly  characteristic  natural 
feelings,  and  kill,  roast,  and  eat  little  children."  I  need 
not,  however,  dwell  any  further  on  the  subjects  specially 
treated  in  this  chapter,  for  their  habits  and  customs 
must  necessarily  come,  more  or  less,  under  further 
consideration  throughout  the  course  of  my  narrative. 

War  Canoe. 

32          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA 



Before  noticing  the  condition  of  the  New  Zealand 
tribes  during  the  twenty  years  immediately  preceding 
the  systematic  colonization  of  the  islands,  I  think  it 
necessary  to  call  attention  to  the  accounts  we  have 
received,  both  from  early  voyagers  and  from  late  writers 
of  authority,  as  to  the  extent  of  the  native  population, 
and  their  habits  of  life,  previously  to  the  introduction  of 
fire-arms;  and  I  do  this  chiefly  for  the  purpose  of 
showing,  that  notwithstanding  the  savage  character  of 
the  former  wars  of  the  New  Zealanders,  the  effects 
which  those  wars  produced  upon  their  numbers  were  as 
naught  compared  with  the  destruction  of  life,  both  direct 
and  indirect,  which  followed  upon  the  use  of  the  more 
deadly  weapon  of  the  civilized  man. 

The  earliest  notice  we  have  of  the  present  race,  occurs 
in  the  history  of  the  voyage  of  Abel  Tasman  to  the 
South  Seas,  in  the  seventeenth  century,  from  which  we 
learn  that,  in  December,  1642,  he  discovered  a  high 
mountainous  country,  which  he  named  Staaten  Landt,  or 
Land  of  the  States,  but  which  is  now  called  New 
Zealand.*  A  day  or  two  afterwards,  he  anchored  in  the 

*  Tasman  called  the  country  Staaten  Landt  in  honour  of  the  States- 
General  of  the  United  Provinces,  and  because  he  thought  it  might  prove 
to  be  continuous  with  Staaten  Landt  to  the  east  of  Tierra  del  Fuego. 
When  in  1643,  Staaten  Landt  was  found  to  be  an  island,  the  States- 
General  changed  the  name  of  the  territory  discovered  by  Tasman  to 
Nova  Zeelanda,  naming  it  after  Zeeland,  a  province  in  the  south-west  of 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OP   TE    RAUPARAHA          33 

beautiful  bay  at  the  north-western  extremity  of  the 
Nelson  Province,  formerly  named  Massacre,  or  Murderers 
Bay,  on  account  of  the  murder  to  which  I  am  about  to 
refer,  but  which  is  now  known,  on  the  maps  of  the 
Nelson  Province,  as  Golden  Bay. 

He  says  that  he  there  found  abundance  of  inhabitants, 
whom  he  describes  as  very  large  made  people,  of  a 
colour  between  brown  and  yellow,  with  hoarse  voices, 
and  with  hair  long,  and  almost  as  thick  as  that  of  the 
Japanese,  combed  up  and  fixed  on  the  top  of  their  heads 
with  a  quill  or  some  such  thing,  that  was  thickest  in  the 
middle,  in  the  very  same  manner  the  Japanese  fastened 
their  hair  behind  their  heads.  Some  of  them  covered 
the  middle  of  their  bodies  with  a  kind  of  mat,  and  others 
with  what  Tasman  took  to  be  a  sort  of  woollen  cloth ; 
but  their  upper  and  lower  parts  were  altogether  naked. 

Tasman  remained  in  the  bay  for  several  days,  and  on  the 
19th  of  December  the  savages,  who  had  previously  been 
shy  of  close  intercourse,  grew  bolder  and  more  familiar, 
insomuch  that  they  at  last  ventured  on  board  the 
"  Heemskirk  "  (one  of  his  ships)  to  trade.  As  soon  as 
he  observed  this,  he  sent  his  shallop,  with  seven  men  in 
it,  to  put  the  people  in  the  "  Heemskirk "  on  their 
guard,  and  to  direct  them  not  to  place  too  much  trust  in 
the  good  intentions  of  their  visitors.  The  men  in  the 
shallop  were  at  once  attacked  by  the  savages,  and,  being 
without  arms,  three  of  them  were  killed,  the  remaining 
four  fortunately  escaping  by  rowing  for  their  lives. 
Tasman  intended  to  take  revenge  for  this  murderous 
assault,  but  was  compelled  to  leave  without  doing  so,  in 
consequence  of  rough  weather  coming  on. 

It  is  probable  that  the  people,  by  whom  his  boat's 
crew  was  attacked,  belonged  either  to  the  Ngaitahu  tribe 

34          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA 

—who,  under  the  leadership  of  their  ancestor  Tahu,  a 
chief  of  the  Ngatikahungunu,  crossed  Cook  Straits  nearly 
three  hundred  years  ago — or  to  the  Eangitane  and 
Ngatiapa,  large  numbers  of  whom  also  crossed  Cook 
Straits  some  time  before  Tasman's  visit,  and  took  part  in 
destruction  of  the  Ngatimamoe  and  other  tribes  which 
had  previously  occupied  the  northern  part  of  the  Middle 
Island ;  but  I  am  unable  to  determine  this  point.  It  is 
clear,  however,  that  the  number  of  natives  then  living  in 
Massacre  Bay  was  large,  and  that  they  exhibited  the 
same  fearless  and  ferocious  character  which  led  to  such 
frequent  hostile  collisions  with  them,  during  the  visit  of 
subsequent  voyagers. 

Our  next  accounts  are  derived  from  our  own  navigator, 
Cook,  who  had  been  directed  to  follow  out  the  discoveries 
of  Tasman  regarding  New  Zealand  and  Van  Diemen's 
Land,  in  order  to  ascertain  whether  they  constituted  part 
of  the  then  little  known  continent  of  New  Holland.  In 
October,  1769,  Cook  first  made  land  at  the  place  which 
he  named  Poverty  Bay.  He  did  not  then  know  that  he 
had  fallen  in  with  the  Staaten  Land  of  Tasman,  and  the 
country  he  had  found  formed  the  subject  of  much  eager 
discussion  amongst  the  voyagers,  the  general  opinion 
inclining  to  the  belief  that  it  was  part  of  the  continent  of 
New  Holland. 

He  described  the  country  in  the  neighbourhood  of  his 
land  fall  as  being  thickly  peopled,  and  was  greatly  struck 
with  the  appearance  of  a  pa,  the  use  of  which  he  was 
unable  at  the  time  to  conceive.  "  Upon  a  small  penin- 
sula, at  the  north-east  head  of  the  bay,  we  could  plainly 
see,"  he  says,  "  a  pretty  high  and  regular  paling,  which 
enclosed  the  whole  top  of  the  hill,  which  was  the  subject 
of  much  speculation,  some  supposing  it  to  be  a  park  for 



•deer,  others  an  enclosure  for  oxen  and  sheep."  Of 
course,  Cook  soon  afterwards  discovered  the  nature  of 
-of  these  structures,  which  will  be  fully  referred  to  in  the 
sequel,  and  which  had  nothing  to  do  either  with  deer, 
-oxen,  or  sheep.  Having  landed  for  the  purpose  of 
watering  the  ship,  his  people  were  at  once  attacked  with 
spears  and  "  a  sort  of  war  hatchet  of  green  slate,  capable 

of  splitting  the 
hardest  skull  at  a 

all  his  efforts  to 
conciliate,  he  found 
it  impossible  to  come 
to  any  amicable 
understanding  with 
the  natives,  even 
though  Tupia  (his 
interpreter)  assured 
them  that  no  harm 
was  intended ;  and 
his  seamen  at  last 
effected  their  retreat 
in  safety,  only  after 
killing  one  of  their 
assailants.  The  next 
Captain  Cook.  day  he  again  en- 

deavoured to  open  friendly  intercourse  with  the  natives, 
and  succeeded  in  approaching  them,  but  they  then 
became  as  thievish  as  they  had  previously  proved  daring. 
They  endeavoured  to  snatch  the  arms  out  of  the  men's 
hands,  and  were  prevented  from  doing  so  only  by  some 
of  them  being  wounded  with  small  shot. 


Failing  in  his  attempts  to  communicate  satisfactorily 
with  them  on  land,  Cook  now  endeavoured  to  secure 
some  of  those  who  came  out  to  the  ship  in  their  canoes, 
intending  to  try  and  win  their  confidence  by  kind  treat- 
ment. In  carrying  out  this  design,  four  more  of  the 
natives  were  killed,  but  two  lads  were  captured  and 
carried  aboard,  where  they  soon  became  reconciled  to 
their  fate,  and  ate  and  drank  voraciously.  These  lads 
were  afterwards  landed,  but  the  people  still  remained  as 
hostile  and  dangerous  as  before. 

Cook  then  followed  the  coast  southward,  as  far  as 
Hawke's  Bay,  everywhere  observing  vast  numbers  of 
people  watching  the  ship  from  different  parts  of  the 
shore,  all  of  whom,  however,  displayed  the  same  hostility, 
coming  off  in  their  canoes,  and  menacing  the  ship  "  with 
great  bravado."  When  some  of  them  came  near  enough, 
Tupia  told  them  of  their  folly,  explaining  "  that  the 
white  men  had  weapons  that,  like  thunder,  would  kill 
them  in  a  moment,  and  tear  their  canoes  to  atoms."  In 
order  to  show  them  the  effect  of  the  guns,  without 
hurting  them,  a  four-pounder,  loaded  with  grape,  was 
fired,  which  by  its  flash,  its  roar,  and  the  effect  of  the 
shot  far  off  on  the  water,  astonished  them  for  a  moment ; 
but  only  for  a  moment. 

Being  at  last  induced  to  come  near,  for  barter,  they 
took  everything  offered,  but  then  refused  to  give  the 
articles  required  in  exchange,  and  ultimately  seized  and 
attempted  to  carry  off  Tayeto,  Tupia's  boy,  who  had 
been  sent  down  into  one  of  the  canoes,  in  order  to  hand 
up  such  articles  as  the  natives  might  agree  to  part  with. 
This  compelled  Cook  to  fire  on  them  again,  when  one 
man  was  killed,  and  two  others  were  wounded,  and  the 
boy,  during  the  surprise,  sprang  into  the  water ;  where, 



however,  he  was  protected  till  he  re-gained  the  ship,  only 
by  the  firearms  of  the  crew. 

This  occurred  at  Kidnappers'  Point,  and  Cook  then 
proceeded  southward  as  far  as  Cape  Turnagain ;  whence 
he  returned  to  the  north-eastward.  On  passing  Portland 
Island,  a  chief  and  four  others,  in  a  canoe,  boarded  the 
ship — Cook's  kindness  to  the  lads  whom  he  had  pre- 
viously seized  having,  apparently,  produced  the  effect  he 
intended.  Their  canoe  was  hoisted  on  board,  and  they 
stayed  all  night  without  any  misgivings.  In  the  morning 
they  were  put  ashore  at  Cape  Table,  appearing  to  be 
much  astonished  at  finding  themselves  so  far  away  from 
home.  From  this  time  the  ship  was  frequently  visited, 
and  it  was  found  that  the  events  which  had  taken  place 
at  Poverty  Bay  were  well  known  all  along  the  coast. 
According  to  Cook,  "kindness  and  the  cannon"  both 
contributed  to  produce  this  more  friendly  feeling. 

At  Tolaga  Bay,  some  of  the  scientific  men  attached  to 
the  expedition  landed  for  the  first  time,  taking  Tupia  and 
Tayeto  with  them.  Here  they  had  their  first  close  view 
of  the  houses  and  mode  of  life  of  the  people.  They 
entered  some  of  the  huts,  and  saw  them  at  their  meals. 
These  huts  are  described  as  being  very  slight,  and 
generally  placed  ten  or  fifteen  together. 

The  chief  food  appeared  to  be  fish  and  fern-root,  the 
fibres  of  which  were  spat  out,  like  quids  of  tobacco,  into 
baskets  set  beside  them  for  the  purpose.  This  was  in 
October,  and  Cook  learnt  that,  in  the  more  advanced 
season,  the  natives  had  plenty  of  excellent  vegetables, 
but  no  animals,  except  dogs,  which  they  ate  like  the 
South  Sea  Islanders.  They  visited  the  native  gardens, 
which  consisted  of  from  one  acre  to  ten,  and  altogether, 
in  the  bay,  amounted  to  150  or  200  acres  in  extent. 


These  gardens  are  described  as  being  planted  with  sweet 
potatoes,  coccos,  or  eddas  (such  as  are  used  in  the  East 
and  West  Indies),  yams,  and  gourds;  but  few  of  them 
were  then  above  ground,  and  the  plantations  were  care- 
fully fenced  in  with  reeds. 

New  Zealand  Flax. 

They  found  both  men  and  women  painted  with  red 
ochre  and  oil,  but  the  women  much  the  more  so ;  and 
that,  like  the  South  Sea  Islanders,  they  saluted  by 
touching  noses.  They  wore  garments  of  native  cloth, 


made  from  the  fibre  of  New  Zealand  flax,  and  a  sort  of 
cloak  or  mantle  of  a  much  coarser  kind.  The  women 
are  described  as  being  more  modest  in  manner,  and  more 
cleanly  in  their  homes,  than  the  Otaheiteans.  They 
willingly  bartered  their  cloth  and  war  weapons  for 
European  cloth,  but  they  set  no  value  on  nails,  having 
then  no  knowledge  of  iron  or  its  uses.  What  astonished 
the  visitors  greatly  was  to  find  boys  whipping  tops 
exactly  like  those  of  Europe. 

Cook  then  visited  a  pa,  and  learned  that  these  enclosures 
were  used  for  purposes  of  defence  against  invasion,  the 
houses  within  the  enclosure,  being  larger  and  more 
strongly  built  than  those  on  the  shore.  He  describes 
the  men  as  having  their  faces  wonderfully  tattooed,  and 
their  cheeks  cut  in  spiral  lines  of  great  regularity  ;  and 
states  that  many  of  them  had  their  garments  bordered 
with  strips  of  dog  and  rat  skins,  which  animals,  however, 
were  said  to  have  become  very  scarce.  They  measured 
one  canoe,  made  out  of  the  boles  of  three  trees,  which 
was  sixty-eight  and  a  half  feet  long,  five  wide,  and  three 
high.  These,  as  well  as  the  houses,  were  much  adorned 
with  carvings,  in  which  spiral  lines  and  distorted  faces 
formed  the  main  points,  but  the  work  was  so  well  done, 
that  Cook  could  scarcely  believe  that  it  had  been 
executed  with  any  of  the  tools  he  saw. 

He  then  followed  the  north  coast  as  far  as  Mercury 
Bay,  and  thence  to  the  Bay  of  Islands,  everywhere 
observing  villages  full  of  people,  who  constantly  came  off 
in  their  canoes  to  utter  defiance  to  the  ship,  displaying, 
on  all  occasions,  the  same  reckless  daring  and  unre- 
flecting courage,  which  were  so  conspicuous  during  the 
late  war.  It  was  surprising,  indeed,  that  half-a-dozen 
naked  men  in  a  crazy  canoe,  should  defy  a  large  ship 


with  all  its  cannon  and  musketry,  even  after  they  had 
seen  its  destructive  effects.  Sometimes  they  assumed 
a  more  friendly  aspect,  and  began  to  trade ;  but  as  soon 
as  they  had  obtained  what  they  wanted,  they  refused  to 
give  up  the  equivalent,  and  laughed  at  all  menace  of 
consequences,  till  they  suffered  wounds  or  death  as  a 
punishment,  and  then  the  survivors  paddled  off  for  a 

These  accounts  are  confirmed,  in  all  particulars,  by 
other  voyagers  who  visited  New  Zealand  during  the 
latter  part  of  the  last,  and  the  earlier  part  of  the  present 
century,  and  lead  to  the  conclusion  that,  prior  to  the 
year  1818,  the  native  population  was  very  large ;  and 
although  we  know,  as  I  have  before  observed,  that 
neighbouring  tribes  had  been  for  ages  constantly  engaged 
in  war  with  one  another,  it  would  also  seem  that  the 
general  results  of  their  conflicts  had  not,  until  after  the 
introduction  of  firearms,  been  such  as  materially  to 
interfere  with  the  maintenance  of  their  numbers. 

Maning,  one  of  the  judges  of  the  Native  Lands  Court, 
a  gentleman  whose  opportunities  of  acquiring  knowledge 
on  this  subject  were  unrivalled,  also  bears  testimony  to 
the  former  large  numbers  of  the  native  people.  "  The 
natives,"  he  says,  "  are  unanimous  in  affirming  that  they 
were  much  more  numerous  in  former  times  than  they 
are  now,  and  I  am  convinced  that  such  was  the  case  for 
many  reasons."  In  support  of  this  opinion,  he  refers  to 
the  existence,  in  most  parts  of  the  North  Island,  of 
numerous  hill-forts  or  pas,  many  of  them  so  large  as  to 
have  required  immense  labour  to  trench,  terrace,  and 
fence.  As  he  points  out,  the  absence  of  iron  tools  must 
have  greatly  increased  the  difficulty  of  constructing  these 
fortresses ;  whilst,  even  with  the  aid  of  such  tools,  the 


present  population  of  the  surrounding  districts  would,  in 
most  cases,  be  insufficient  to  erect  them  within  any 
reasonable  time.  He  also  mentions  that  many  of  these 
forts  were  of  such  an  extent  that,  taking  into  consider- 
ation the  system  of  attack  and  defence  necessarily  used 
before  the  introduction  of  fire-arms,  they  would  have 
been  utterly  untenable,  unless  held  by  at  least  ten  times 
the  number  of  men  which  the  whole  neighbourhood,  for 
a  distance  of  two  or  three  days'  journey,  can  now  pro- 
duce ;  and  as,  in  those  times  of  constant  war,  the  natives, 
as  a  rule,  slept  in  their  hill-forts  with  closed  gates,  the 
bridges  over  the  trenches  removed,  and  the  ladders  of 
the  terraces  drawn  up,  it  is  evident  that  the  inhabitants 
of  each  fort,  though  numerous,  consisted  only  of  the 
population  of  the  country  in  its  close  vicinity. 

"  From  the  top  of  one  of  these  pointed,  trenched,  and 
terraced  hills,"  says  Maning,  "  I  have  counted  twenty 
others,  all  of  equally  large  dimensions,  and  all  within  a 
distance,  in  every  direction,  of  fifteen  to  twenty  miles ; 
and  native  tradition  affirms,  that  each  of  these  hills  was 
the  stronghold  of  a  separate  hapu,  or  clan,  bearing  its 
distinctive  name."  We  have,  moreover,  evidence  that 
vast  tracts  of  land  that  are  now  wild,  and  have  been  so 
for  time  out  of  mind,  were  once  fully  and  carefully 
cultivated.  The  ditches  for  draining  are  still  traceable, 
and  hundreds  of  large  kumara  pits  are  to  be  seen  on  the 
tops  of  the  dry  hills  all  over  the  northern  part  of  the 
North  Island. 

These  pits,  in  the  greatest  number,  are  found  in  the 
centre  of  extensive  tracts  of  uncultivated  country,  whose 
natural  productions  would  now  scarcely  sustain  a  dozen 
inhabitants.  The  extent  of  the  ancient  cultivations  with 
which  they  are  connected  is  clearly  traceable ;  and  what 

44          THE    STIERING   TIMES   OP   TE   RAUPAEAHA 

is  more  remarkable  and  undoubtedly  indicates  the  former 
existence  of  a  large  population,  is  that  tracts  of  land  of 
what  the  natives  consider,  as  a  rule,  to  be  of  very  inferior 
quality,  were  formerly  cultivated,  leading  to  the  inference 
either  that  the  population  was  fully  proportioned  to  the 
extent  of  available  land,  or  that  these  inferior  lands  were 
cultivated  in  consequence  of  their  vicinity  to  some 
stronghold,  or  position  of  greater  consequence,  in  the 
eyes  of  the  natives,  than  the  mere  fertility  of  the 
surrounding  country.  "These  kumara  pits,"  says 
Maning,  "  being  dug  generally  in  the  stiff  clay  on  the 
hill-tops  have,  in  most  cases,  retained  their  shape 
perfectly,  and  many  seem  as  fresh  and  new  as  if  they 
had  been  dug  but  a  few  years.  They  are  oblong  in  shape, 
with  the  sides  regularly  sloped.  Many  collections  of 
these  provision  stores  have  outlived  Maori  tradition,  and 
the  natives  can  only  conjecture  to  whom  they  belonged. 
Out  of  the  centre  of  one,  which  I  have  seen,  there  is  now 
growing  a  kauri  tree,  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  high, 
and  out  of  another  a  large  totara.  The  outline  of  these 
pits  is  as  regular  as  the  day  they  were  dug,  and  the 
sides  have  not  fallen  in  in  the  slightest  degree  ;  from 
which,  perhaps,  they  have  been  preserved  by  the  absence 
of  frost,  as  well  as  by  a  beautiful  coating  of  moss,  by 
which  they  are  everywhere  covered.  The  pit  in  which 
the  kauri  grew  had  been  partially  filled  up  by  the  scaling 
off  of  the  bark  of  the  tree,  which,  falling  in  patches,  as 
it  is  constantly  doing,  had  raised  a  mound  of  decaying 
bark  round  the  root  of  the  tree." 

Maning  points  out,  as  further  evidence  of  the  former 
existence  of  a  large  population,  that  each  of  the  hill-forts 
referred  to  contained  a  considerable  number  of  houses. 
Every  native  house,  as  we  know,  has  a  fire-place 


composed  of  four  flattish  stones  or  flags,  sunk  on  their 
edges  into  the  ground,  in  which  a  fire  is  made  to  heat 
the  house  at  night.  Now,  in  two  of  the  largest  hill-forts 
he  examined  (though  for  ages  no  other  vestige  of  a 
house  had  been  seen)  there  remained  the  fire-places — 
the  four  stones  projecting,  like  an  oblong  box,  slightly 
above  the  ground ;  and  their  position  and  number 
clearly  denoted  that,  large  as  was  the  circumference  of 
the  huge  volcanic  hill  which  formed  the  sight  of  the 
fortress,  the  number  of  families  inhabiting  it,  required 
the  strictest  economy  of  room.  The  houses  had 
been  arranged  in  streets,  or  double  rows,  with  paths 
between  them,  except  in  places  where  there  had 
been  only  room,  on  a  terrace,  for  a  single  row.  The 
distances  between  the  fire-places  proved  that  the  houses 
in  the  rows  must  have  been  as  close  together  as  it  was 
possible  to  build  them  ;  and  every  spot,  from  the  foot 
to  the  hill-top,  not  required,  and  specially  planned  for 
defensive  purposes,  had  been  built  on  in  this  regular 
manner.  Even  the  small  flat  top,  sixty  yards  long  by 
forty  wide — the  citadel — on  which  the  greatest  care  and 
labour  had  been  bestowed  to  render  it  difficult  of 
access,  had  been  as  full  of  houses  as  it  could  hold,  leaving 
only  a  small  space  all  round  the  precipitous  bank  for  the 
defenders  to  stand  on. 

It  would  not  be  difficult  to  multiply  authorities,  in 
order  to  prove  that  the  New  Zealanders  were  formerly 
much  more  numerous  than  when  the  Islands  were  first 
systematically  colonized  by  Europeans,  but  I  conceive 
that  I  have  afforded  sufficient  evidence  on  this  point, 
and  it  now  remains  for  me  to  notice  the  principal  causes- 
which  led  to  their  decrease. 


"  The  natives,"  says  Maning  "  attribute  their  decrease 
in  numbers,  before  the  arrival  of  the  Europeans,  to  war 
and  sickness  ;  but  I  have  already  shown,  that  although 
the  weapons  they  used  before  they  obtained  firearms  were 
sufficiently  formidable  in  close  combat,  the  destruction  of 
life  incident  to  the  possession  of  such  weapons  would, 
probably,  never  have  brought  about  the  deplorable  results 
which  followed  upon  the  introduction  of  the  musket  into 
their  system  of  warfare.  Indeed,  Maning  himself  leans  to 
this  opinion.  "The  first  grand  cause,"  he  says,  "of  the 
decrease  of  the  natives,  since  the  arrival  of  the  Europeans, 
is  the  musket."  Now,  it  was  not  until  after  the  year 
1820  that  fire-arms  were  extensively  used  in  native 
warfare.  Shortly  before  that  date,  the  Ngapuhi  chiefs, 
Hongi  and  Waikato,  had  visited  England,  from  whence 
they  returned  laden  with  valuable  gifts,  of  which  no 
small  part  consisted  of  guns  and  ammunition,  for  which, 
too,  they  soon  bartered  the  remainder  of  their  newly- 
acquired  treasures,  with  traders  from  New  South  Wales. 

Then  commenced  a  period  of  slaughter  almost  un- 
paralleled in  any  country,  when  compared  with  the  total 
population  engaged  in  the  conflicts.  Bands  of  the 
Ngapuhi,  armed  with  weapons  whose  destructive  power 
was  unknown  to  the  great  majority  of  the  native 
people,  marched  from  one  end  of  the  North  Island  to 
the  other,  carrying  dismay  and  destruction  wherever 
they  went.  The  population  of  large  districts  was 
exterminated  or  driven  into  mountain  fastnesses,  where 
they  either  perished,  in  numbers,  from  famine  and 
exposure,  or  contracted  diseases  which  ultimately 
proved  fatal  to  them.  The  great  tribes  of  the  Arawa 
and  Waikato,  against  whom  the  first  efforts  of  the 
Ngapuhi  were  directed,  seeing  the  necessity  of  at 


once  obtaining  similar  weapons,  in  order  to  avoid 
threatened  destruction,  suspended  all  their  usual  pursuits 
for  the  purpose  of  preparing  flax,  to  be  exchanged 

Source  of  the  Waikato  River. 

with  the  European  traders  for  guns,  powder,  and  ball. 
As  fast  as  these  were  obtained,  they  were  turned  against 


weaker  neighbours,  and  the  work  of  destruction  received 
a  fresh  impulse.  Hongi,  Epihai,  Tamati  Waka  Nene,. 
and  Tareha,  amongst  the  Ngapuhi  chiefs, — Te  Whero 
Whero,  and  others  of  the  Waikatos, — and  Te  Waharoa, 
with  his  Ngatihaua,  were  all  simultaneously  engaged  in 
the  most  ruthless  wars  against  their  neighbours  ;  whilst 
as  I  have  before  observed,  Te  Rauparaha  was  carrying 
on  operations  of  a  similar  character  in  the  South ;  and 
the  number  of  people  slaughtered  was  tremendous. 

On  this  head,  I  might  quote  many  graphic  passages- 
from  J.  A.  Wilson's  "  Story  of  Te  Waharoa."  In  speaking 
of  the  ultimate  destruction  of  the  great  pa  at  Matamata, 
he  tells  us,  "  That  at  that  time  a  number  of  Ngatimaru, 
with  Tuhurua  as  their  chief,  resided  at  Matamata,  an 
important  fortress,  not  far  from  Mangakawa,  Te  Waharoa's 
own  place,  and  therefore  in  a  position  which  rendered 
them  specially  open  to  his  incursions.  Nor  could  they 
expect  any  effective  aid  against  these  incursions  from 
the  other  sections  of  the  tribe,  whose  internal  jealousies, 
and  constant  dread  of  the  Ngapuhi,  then  using  their 
newly-acquired  weapons,  in  taking  vengeance  for  former 
injuries,  prevented  them  joining  Ngatimaru  proper 
against  the  common  enemy.  But  for  these  circum- 
stances, of  which  Te  Waharoa  was,  no  doubt,  well  aware, 
it  is  considered  questionable  whether  he  would  have 
succeeded  in  his  designs,  as  the  Thames  natives,  before 
they  lost  the  Totara  Pa,  mustered  4,000  fighting  men ; 
and,  even  after  that  disaster,  he  was  unable,  by  mere 
strength,  to  wrest  it  from  its  possessors."  The  following 
events,  however,  determined  him  to  prosecute  his  war 
with  Ngatimaru,  and  greatly  contributed  to  his  ultimate 


In  1821,"  says  Wilson,  "  a  taua  of  Ngapuhi,  under 
the  celebrated  Hongi,  arrived  at  the  Totara  Pa,  between 
Kauaeranga  and  Kopu,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Thames.  So 
numerous  did  they  find  the  Ngatimaru,  and  the  Totara  so 
strong,  that,  hesitating  to  attack,  they  affected  to  be 
amicably  disposed,  and  were  received  into  the  pa  for  the 
purposes  of  trade  and  barter.  Towards  evening  Ngapuhi 

retired,  and  it  is  very 
remarkable — as  indi- 
cating that  man,  in  his 
most  ignorant  and 
savage  state,  is  not 
unvisited  by  compunc- 
tions of  conscience — 
that  an  old  chief  of 
the  Ngapuhi  lingered, 
and  going  out  of  the 
gate  behind  his  com- 
rades, dropped  the 
friendly  caution  ;  '  kia 
tupato.'  That  night, 
however,  the  Totara 
was  taken,  and,  it  is 
said,  1,000  Ngatimarus 
perished.  Rauroha 
was  slain,  and  Uri- 
mahia,  his  daughter  was  carried  captive  to  the  Bay  of 
Islands,  where  she  remained  several  years.  This 
calamity,  while  it  weakened  Ngatimaru,  encouraged  Te 

"  In  1822,  Hongi  again  appeared,  and  sailing  up  the 
Tamaki,  attacked  and  carried  two  pas  which  were 
situated  together,  on  part  of  the  site  now  occupied  by 

Bust  of  Hongi. 

.50          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

the  village  of  Panmure.  Many  of  the  inhabitants  were 
slaughtered,  and  some  escaped.  I  would  here  observe 
that  these  two  pas,  Mauinena  and  Makoia,  had  no 
connection  with  the  immense  pa  which  evidently  at  some 
time  flourished  on  Mount  Wellington,  and  which,  with 
the  traces  of  a  very  great  number  of  other  enormous  pas 
in  the  Auckland  district,  betokens  the  extremely  dense 
Maori  population  wrhich  once  existed  upon  this  isthmus 
— a  population  destroyed  by  the  late  owners  of  the  soil, 
and  numbered  with  the  past,  but  which,  in  its  time,  was 
known  by  the  significant  title  of  Nga  Iwi — '  The  Tribes.' 

"  Leaving  naught  at  Mauinena  and  Makoia  but  the 
inhabitants'  bones,  having  flesh  and  tendons  adhering, 
which  even  his  dogs  had  not  required,  Hongi  pursued  his 
course.  He  drew  his  canoes  across  the  isthmuses  of 
Otahuhu  and  Waiuku,  and  descended  the  Awaroa.  At  a 
sharp  bend  in  the  narrow  stream,  his  largest  canoe  could 
not  be  turned,  and  he  was  compelled  to  make  a  passage 
for  her,  by  cutting  a  short  canal,  which  may  yet  be  seen. 

"  At  length  he  arrived  at  Matakitaki,  a  pa  situated 
about  the  site  of  the  present  township  of  Alexandra, 
where  a  number  of  Waikato  natives  had  taken  refuge. 
The  pa  was  assaulted,  and  while  Hongi  was  in  the  act  of 
carrying  it  on  one  side,  a  frightful  catastrophe  was 
securing  to  him  the  corpses  of  its  wretched  occupants  on 
the  other.  Panic-stricken  at  the  approach  of  the 
victorious  Ngapuhi,  the  multitude  within,  of  men,  women, 
and  children,  rushed  madly  over  the  opposite  rampart. 
The  first  fugitives,  unable  to  scale  the  counterscarp,  by 
reason  of  its  height,  and  of  the  numbers  which  poured 
down  on  them,  succumbed  and  fell ;  those  who  had 
crushed  them  were  crushed  in  like  manner ;  layer  upon 
layer  of  suffocating  humanity  succeeded  each  other.  In 



vain  did  the  unhappy  beings,  as  they  reached  the 
parapet,  attempt  to  pause — death  was  in  front,  and 
death  behind — fresh  fugitives  pushed  on  ;  they  had  no 
option,  but  were  precipitated  into,  and  became  part  of 
the  dying  mass.  When  the  deed  was  complete,  the 
Ngapuhi  came  quickly  up,  and  shot  such  as  were  at  the 
surface  and  likely  to  escape. 

"  Never  had  cannibals  gloated  over  such  unexpected 
good  fortune,  for  more  than  1,000  victims  lay  dead  in 

Dusky  Sound. 

the  trench,  and  the  magnitude  of  the  feast  which  fol- 
lowed may,  perhaps,  be  imagined  from  the  fact  that,  after 
the  lapse  of  forty-two  years,  when  the  2nd  Begiment  of 
Waikato  Militia,  in  establishing  their  new  settlement, 
cleared  the  fern  from  the  ground,  the  vestiges  of  many 
hundred  native  ovens  were  discovered,  some  of  them 
long  enough  to  have  admitted  a  body  entire ;  while 
numberless  human  bones  lay  scattered  around. 


several  of  the  larger  bones,  pieces  appeared  to  have  been 
carefully  cut,  for  the  purpose,  doubtless,  of  making  fish- 
hooks, and  such  other  small  articles  as  the  Maoris  were 
accustomed  to  carve  froin  the  bones  of  their  enemies." 

Nor  was  Te  Waharoa  idle  during  all  this  time. 
Having,  by  his  courage,  activity,  and  address,  acquired 
the  leadership  of  his  own  people,  he  had  long  determined 
to  extend  the  boundaries  of  their  territory  by  conquering 
that  of  the  Ngatimaru ;  but,  before  commencing  his 
sanguinary  wars  against  that  tribe,  he  had  felt  it 
necessary  to  form  offensive  and  defensive  alliances  with 
the  Ngatimaniapoto  and  to  check  Te  Whero  Whero  and 
the  Waikatos,  by  whom  he  had  been  threatened,  but  into 
whom  he  succeeded  in  inspiring  a  wholesome  dread  of 
his  strength,  whilst  he  also  repelled,  with  heavy  loss,  the 
incursions  of  the  Ngapuhi,  which  were  directed  indis- 
criminately against  all  the  tribes  south  of  the  Auckland 
Isthmus.  He  succeeded,  moreover,  in  causing  Te  Bau- 
paraha,  as  pugnacious  and  skilful  a  warrior  as  himself,  to- 
leave  Kawhia  with  his  people.  He  then  pressed  his 
alliance  upon  the  Ngaiterangi,  who  occupied  Tauranga 
and  the  surrounding  country,  an  alliance,  which,  by  the 
way,  proved  very  disastrous  to  them,  whilst  it  greatly 
aided  his  own  projects. 

Having  done  all  this  he  commenced  his  more  regular 
operations  against  the  Ngatimaru,  who  were  then  estab- 
lished in  great  strength  at  Hauwhenua,  where  they  had 
been  joined  by  the  refugees  from  Mauinena  and  Makoia. 
He  had  naturally  viewed  the  establishment  of  this  strong- 
hold with  the  utmost  jealousy,  and  it  had  no  little  effect 
in  hastening  the  commencement  of  hostilities  between 
the  two  parties.  Feeling  that  his  own  warriors  were  not 
sufficiently  numerous  to  attack  the  hostile  pa,  h& 

THE    STIREING   TIMES   OF   TE   EAUPAEAHA          53 

summoned  some  of  his  Waikato  and  Ngatimaniapoto 
allies  to  Matmgatautari,  who,  only  too  ready,  at  once 
joined  him  to  the  number  of  200  warriors.  His  own 
force  comprised  some  700  Ngatihaua  and  Ngaiterangi. 

In  the  meantime,  the  Ngatimaru  had  spared  no  pains 
to  strengthen  their  important  stronghold,  their  garrison 
having,  moreover,  been  increased  by  numbers  of  Ngatite- 
matera  and  Ngatipaoa.  The  pa  thus  became  a  very  large 
one,  and  densely  peopled,  not  only  with  warriors,  but 
with  women,  children,  and  slaves.  Their  numbers 
appear  to  have  inspired  them  with  much  self-confidence, 
for  when  it  became  known  that  Te  Waharoa  had  arrived 
at  Maungatautari,  with  a  taua  900  strong,  they  boldly 
determined  to  meet  him  in  the  open  field.  Perhaps  they 
wished  to  decide  the  matter  before  he  could  receive 
further  reinforcements  ;  or  perhaps  they  desired  to  avoid 
the  mortification  of  seeing  the  enemy  sit  comfortably 
down  before  their  pa,  and  regale  himself  on  their 
cultivations.  At  any  rate,  they  marched  forth  and  took 
post  on  the  hill,  Te  Tihi  o  te  Ihimarangi — the  place  where 
the  descendants  of  Waharoa's  warriors  opposed  General 
Cameron  in  1864  ;  and,  when  the  enemy  was  seen  to 
approach,  they  rushed  down  and  joined  battle  with  him 
on  the  plain  to  the  eastward. 

The  contest  was  a  severe  one,  but  resulted  in  the 
complete  defeat  of  the  Thames  natives.  They  were 
driven  back  over  Te  Tiki  o  te  Ihimarangi,  and  down  its 
reverse  slope,  and  were  pursued,  with  great  slaughter, 
over  the  long  narrow  bushy  plain  that  extends  to 
Hauwhenua.  At  the  end  of  a  long  and  sanguinary  day, 
the  dejected  men  within  the  pa  sat.  dreading  the  morrow's 
light,  whilst  Te  Waharoa  calmly  considered  his  own  and 
his  enemy's  positions.  After  resolving  the  matter  for 

54          THE    STIEBING   TIMES   OF   TE   BAUPABAHA 

some  time,  he  sent  a  herald  to  proclaim  to  the  occupants 
of  the  pa  '  that  during  the  next  four  days  anyone  might 
retire  unmolested  from  the  pa,  but  on  the  fifth  day 
Hauwhenua,  with  all  it  contained,  would  be  taken  and 
destroyed."  No  answer  was  returned,  but  during  the 
interval  a  multitude  of  all  ages  and  sexes  issued  forth 
from  the  pa,  and  marched  in  close  order  along  the  road 
by  Matamata  to  the  Thames.  That  night  Te  Waharoa's 
ranks  were  recruited  by  many  slaves,  who  deserted, 
under  cover  of  darkness,  from  the  retreating  Ngatimarus, 
and  on  the  following  day  the  pa  was  assaulted  and  taken. 
The  fall  of  Hauwhenua,  which  occurred  about  1831, 
terminated  the  residence  of  the  Ngatimaru  on  the 
Waikato ;  and  was  followed  by  operations,  from  a  Waikato 
basis,  which  were  successfully  conducted  against  them, 
on  the  line  of  the  Piako. 

Whilst  the  earlier  of  these  events  were  proceeding,  the 
Ngatimaru  chief,  Takurua,  maintained  his  position  at 
Matamata ;  but  about  that  time  he  appears,  after  much 
fighting,  to  have  judged  it  advisable  to  accept  terms  of 
peace  proposed  by  Te  Waharoa.  They  were  to  bury  the 
past  in  oblivion,  and  both  parties  were  to  live  at  Mata- 
mata, where,  it  was  said,  there  was  room  for  all.  These 
terms  were  practically  ratified  by  Te  Waharoa  and 
Takurua  living  side  by  side,  in  the  most  apparent  friend- 
ship, for  a  period  of  about  two  years.  Te  Waharoa  then, 
however,  committed  an  act  of  perfidy,  condemned  even 
by  the  opaquely-minded  savages  of  that  day,  by  which  he 
obtained  sole  possession  of  Matamata,  and  so  turned  the 
balance  of  power  in  his  own  favour,  as  greatly  to  aid  him 
in  his  ultimate  designs.  One  afternoon  he  left  Matamata 
on  pretence  of  a  necessary  journey  to  Tauranga — a 
circumstance  rather  calculated  to  lull  suspicion  than 



otherwise — and  during  his  absence,  his  tribe  at  midnight 
rose,  and  massacred,  in  cold  blood,  the  too  confiding 
Takurua,  and  nearly  every  man  of  his  tribe.  Their 
bodies  were  devoured,  and  their  wives  and  property  were 
shared  by  the  ruthless  Ngatihauas. 

Te  Whero  Whero. 

This  Maori  St.  Bartholomew's  day  occurred  about  1827, 
and  so  weakened  Ngatimaru,  that  Te  Waharoa  was 
enabled,  after  the  fall  of  Hauwhenua,  to  push  his  con- 
quests to  the  foot  of  the  Aroha,  and  it  is  difficult  to  say 
where  they  would  have  ceased,  had  not  his  attention 
been  unexpectedly  diverted  by  the  casual  murder  of  his 


cousin  Hunga,  at  Eotorua,  in  the  latter  end  of  the  year 

I  make  no  apology  for  citing  these  instances  of 
atrocity,  which  exhibit,  in  the  strongest  light,  the 
dreadful  character  of  the  wars  carried  on  by  the  great 
chieftains  in  the  North,  during  the  twenty  years 
succeeding  Hongi's  return  from  Europe.  Indeed,  this 
period  has  been  well  characterized  by  Colenso  "as  a 
fearful  period  in  New  Zealand."  "  The  Ngapuhi,"  he 
says,  "being  well  armed  with  muskets,  revelled  in 
destruction,  slaying  thousands.  At  Kaipara,  Manukau, 
Tamaki,  the  Thames,  the  interior  of  Waikato  on  to 
Eotorua,  and  even  to  Taranaki ;  and  they  also  came  in 
their  canoes  as  far  south  as  Ahuriri  or  Hawke's  Bay, 
remorselessly  destroying  everywhere  as  they  went.  The 
tribes  further  north  were  also  fighting  against  each  other 
— the  Earawa  destroying  the  Aopuri,  who  were  very 
numerous  about  the  North  Cape.  Te  Whero  Whero,  at 
the  head  of  his  people,  was  slaughtering,  for  many  years, 
on  the  West  Coast,  from  Taranaki  to  Wanganui ;  Te 
Waharoa,  and  other  chiefs,  in  the  interior  and  overland 
to  Hawke's  Bay ;  the  Eotorua  tribes  in  the  Bay  of 
Plenty  ;  and  Te  Eauparaha  exterminating  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Cook  Straits  and  along  the  east  coast  of  the 
Middle  Island.  From  1822  to  1837  was  truly  a  fearful 
period  in  New  Zealand.  Blood  flowed  like  water,  and 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  numbers  killed  during 
this  period  of  twenty  years,  including  those  who  perished 
in  consequence  of  the  wars,  far  exceeded  60,000 

The  preliminary  sketch  contained  in  the  foregoing 
chapters,  though  brief,  will,  I  hope,  convey  to  my 
readers  a  sufficiently  clear  idea  of  the  manners  and 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA          57 

customs,  and  character  of  the  New  Zealanders,  and 
of  the  condition  of  the  tribes  previous  to  the  systematic 
colonization  of  the  Islands,  and  will,  be  found  to  aid 
them  materially  in  understanding  the  events  which  will 
be  detailed  in  the  following  pages.  It  shows,  moreover, 
the  frightful  results  brought  about  by  placing  the  deadly 
weapons  of  European  warfare  in  the  hands  of  a  savage 
and  warlike  race,  whilst  still  uncontrolled  by  those  milder 
influences,  to  which,  notwithstanding  their  ferocity,  the 
New  Zealanders  have  shown  themselves  so  singularly 
open  and  amenable. 




At  the  time  of  the  birth  of  Te  Eauparaha,  and,  indeed, 
for  many  generations  before  that  event,  the  Ngatitoa 
tribe  occupied  the  country  lying  between  Kawhia  and 
Mokau  on  the  western  side  of  the  North  Island,  and 
extending  backward,  from  the  coast  line,  to  the  seaward 
slopes  of  the  beautiful  Pirongia  mountain,  and  of  the 
chain  of  hills  to  the  southward,  which  bounds  the  valleys 
of  the  Waipa  and  the  Mangarama.  This  tribe,  in  fact, 
claims  to  have  held  the  country  in  question  ever  since  its 
settlement  by  their  ancestor,  Hoturoa,  a  leading  chief 
amongst  those  who  are  said  to  have  come  from  Hawaiki 
in  the  "  Tainui  "  canoe.  It  will  be  remembered  that 
this  canoe  was  dragged  across  the  portage  at  Otahuhu 
after  the  disputes  between  Tama  Te  Kapu  and  Manaia 
about  the  dead  whale,  its  chiefs  and  their  followers 
settling  in  and  around  Kawhia,  and  their  descendants 
gradually  spreading  to  the  eastward  as  far  as  Maunga- 

The  Maoris  in  various  parts  of  the  Islands,  believe 
that  several  of  the  canoes  in  which  their  ancestors  came 
from  Hawaiki  have  been  transformed  into  stone,  and 
a  remarkable  block  of  limestone,  close  to  the  sea-shore, 
on  the  north  side  of  the  harbour  of  Kawhia,  is  pointed 


out  as  being  part  of  the  Tainui."  This  rock,  with  the 
land  immediately  surrounding  it,  was  formerly  under 
strict  tapu,  but  the  sanctity  of  the  place,  and  of  the 
supposed  relic,  has  succumbed  to  the  march  of  civilization, 
and  curiosity  -  hunters  have  long  since  marred  the 
picturesque  outline  of  the  stone  by  breaking  off  corners. 

Hoturoa  is  also  said  to  be  the  ancestor  of  the  Ngatirau- 
kawa,  Ngatikowhata,  and  Ngatimaniapoto  tribes,  the 
order  of  descent  in  the  several  cases  being  much  as 
follows : — From  Hoturoa,  through  Hotumatapu  and 
Kouwe,  sprang  Baka,  whose  eldest  son,  Tuihaua,  was  the 
ancestor  of  Toa  Bangatira,  the  actual  founder  of  the 
Ngatitoa  as  a  separate  tribe,  and  from  whom  they  derive 
their  name.  From  another  son  of  Raka,  named  Kakati, 
through  Tawhao  and  Turonga,  sprang  Baukawa,  from 
whom  the  Ngatiraukawa  derive  their  name.  From  Toa 
Bangatira,  in  direct  descent,  came  Kimihia,  the  mother 
of  Werawera,  who  married  a  Ngatiraukawa  woman 
named  Parekowhatu. 

These  two  were  the  parents  of  Te  Bauparaha,  and  of 
his  sister  Waitohi,  the  mother  of  Bangihaeata,  who  will 
be  frequently  mentioned  in  the  course  of  this  narrative. 
Besides  Te  Bangihaeata,  Waitohi  had  other  children,  of 
whom  a  daughter  named  Topiora  was  still  living  at  Otaki 
in  1872,  and  was  the  mother  of  Matene  Te  Whiwhi,  for 
many  years  one  of  the  most  influential  chiefs  of  the 
Ngatitoa  and  Ngatiraukawa  tribes.  Topiora's  husband 
was  a  Ngatiraukawa  man,  of  high  rank,  named  Te  Bangi 
Kapiki,  who  himself  claimed  to  be  closely  connected  to 
Ngatitoa,  both  by  ancient  descent  and  through  frequent 
intermarriages  between  members  of  the  two  tribes. 
Tracing  back  again,  we  find  Te  Urutira  and  his  sister, 
Hine  Kahukura,  in  the  third  place  in  the  ascending  line 


from  Toa  Eangatira.  From  Hine  Kahukura  sprang 
Parewahawaha  and  Parekowhatu,  the  former  of  whom 
married  Tihau,  by  whom  she  had  a  son  named  Whatanui, 
the  father  of  the  great  chief  of  that  name,  who  was  at  the 
head  of  the  Ngatiraukawa  tribe,  during  the  career  of  Te 

We  see,  therefore,  that  the  leading  chiefs  of  the 
Ngatitoa  and  Ngatiraukawa  tribes  claim  descent  from 
common  ancestors,  and  that  frequent  intermarriages  took 
place  between  the  members  of  these  tribes,  since  they 
branched  off  from  the  common  stock.  The  same  remarks 
apply,  but  in  less  degree,  to  the  descent  of  the  Ngati- 
maniapoto  and  Ngatikowhata,  who  also  claim  Hoturoa  as 
their  remote  ancestor ;  but  it  is  unnecessary,  for  the 
purposes  of  my  story,  that  I  should  trace  up  the  history 
of  these  tribes,  as  they  do  not  appear  to  have  taken  any 
prominent  part  in  the  events  in  which  the  Ngatitoa 
were  engaged  after  their  departure  from  Kawhia. 

As  my  readers  are  doubtless  aware,  Kawhia  is  the  only 
harbour  of  any  note  between  the  Manukau,  which  lies 
about  sixty  miles  to  the  northward  of  it,  and  Wanganui, 
which  lies  at  some  distance  within  the  entrance  of  Cook 
Straits  ;  but,  like  all  the  other  harbours  on  the  West 
Coast  of  the  North  Island,  its  entrance  is  somewhat 
impeded  by  sand-banks.  The  entrance  is  narrow,  but 
inside  the  Heads  the  waters  spread  out  for  many  miles  in 
length  and  width,  having  numerous  navigable  channels 
leading  to  a  series  of  small  rivers,  which  flow  into  the 
harbour  from  the  eastward.  At  full  tide,  this  sheet  of 
water  is  extremely  beautiful,  surrounded,  as  it  is,  with 
picturesque  scenery,  which  attains  its  highest  effect  at 
the  north-east  end,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Awaroa 
River.  Rock  masses,  assuming  the  forms  of  towers  and 


castles,  occupy  its  shores,  whilst  the  gullies  and  valleys 
of  the  streams  which  fall  into  it  contain  tracts  of  fertile 
and  highly  cultivated  soil.  The  character  of  the  lands- 
cape continues  the  same  far  up  the  slopes  of  the 
surrounding  mountains,  the  name  of  the  "  Castle  Hills  " 
having  been  given  to  them  in  allusion  to  the  masses  of 
white  limestone  which  emerge,  in  huge  castellated  forms, 
from  the  forest  with  which  these  mountains  are  generally 

Between  Kawhia  and  the  Waipa  valley,  a  little  to  the 
northward  of  the  former,  is  the  beautiful  Pirongia 
mountain,  "  an  ancient  dilapidated  volcano,"  whose  many 
peaks  and  ravines  afford  a  grand  spectacle  when  bathed 
in  the  mellow  light  of  the  setting  sun  ;  whilst  the  soil  on 
its  slopes,  derived  from  the  decomposition  of  the 
trachytic  rock  of  which  it  is  composed,  is  of  the  most 
fertile  kind.  The  climate  of  the  whole  district  is 
delightful,  the  orange  and  the  lemon  yielding  their  fruit 
with  a  luxuriance  unsurpassed  even  in  the  delicious 
valleys  of  Granada.  The  seaward  aspect  of  the  mountain 
chain  to  which  I  have  alluded,  as  well  as  the  slopes 
of  the  Pirongia,  are,  however,  densely  wooded,  rendering 
travelling  through  this  country  toilsome  and  difficult. 

At  the  time  I  speak  of,  the  Ngatimaniapoto  occupied 
the  country  lying  along  the  coast  to  the  northward, 
whilst  the  Waikato  tribes,  of  whom  Te  Whero  Whero  was 
the  head  chief,  claimed  the  principal  part  of  the  valley  of 
the  Waipa,  and  of  the  country  extending  to  the  inner 
shores  of  the  Manukau.  To  the  eastward,  beyond  the 
range  shutting  in  the  Waipa  valley  on  that  side,  and 
stretching  from  Otawhao  to  Maungatautari,  lay  the 
possessions  of  Ngatiraukawa  proper,  comprising  some  of 


the  most  fertile  and  beautiful  country  in  the  North 

The  Ngatituwharetoa,  or  Taupo  tribes,  under  the 
leadership  of  Tukino  Te  Heuheu,  one  of  the  greatest 
of  the  old  New  Zealand  chieftains — a  man  of  gigantic 
stature  and  commanding  presence,  and  whose  deeds  still 
form  the  theme  of  many  a  wild  tale — clustered  round  the 
shores  of  Lake  Taupo,  and  the  spurs  of  Tongariro.  As  is 
well  known,  Te  Heuheu  met  his  death  by  an  awful 
catastrophe  in  1846,  his  village,  Te  Rapa,  having  been 
overwhelmed  during  the  night  by  a  huge  landslip,  under 
which  he  and  his  six  wives,  with  upwards  of  fifty  other 
persons,  were  buried  alive. 

I  have  thought  it  necessary  to  mention  the  tribe  of 
this  chief  amongst  the  others  above  referred  to,  for 
although  he  took  a  comparatively  trifling  part  in  the 
events  in  which  Te  Eauparaha  himself  was  concerned, 
his  friendship  and  alliance  were  of  great  service  to  the 
latter,  and  permitted  a  ready  means  of  communication 
between  him  and  his  Ngatiraukawa  allies  during  the 
prosecution  of  his  designs  in  the  South. 

It  is  almost  impossible  to  determine  the  date  of  the 
birth  of  Te  Rauparaha,  but  from  the  best  information 
I  have  been  able  to  obtain  as  to  his  probable  age  at  the 
time  of  the  Treaty  of  Waitangi,  I  am  disposed  to  fix  it  at 
about  the  year  1770.  He  was  born  at  Kawhia,  where, 
except  during  occasional  visits  to  other  parts  of  the 
Island,  and  especially  to  his  kindred  at  Maungatautari, 
he  resided  until  he  obtained  the  complete  leadership 
of  his  tribe.  He  had  two  brothers  and  two  sisters, 
all  older  than  himself,  but  his  brothers  never  assumed 
positions  of  importance  amongst  their  people,  and 
neither  of  them  ever  exhibited  the  particular  qualities 


which  have  made  Te  Eauparaha  so  famous  in  the  history 
of  "  Old  New  Zealand." 

Te  Rauparaha  is  said  to  have  been  a  good,  pretty,  and 
playful  child,  possessing,  amongst  other  qualities,  that  of 
obedience  in  a  high  degree.  It  is  recorded  of  him,  that 
on  one  occasion  when  directed  by  an  old  slave  of  his 
father's,  named  Poutini,  to  fetch  water  in  a  calabash,  an 
order  which,  considering  his  rank,  he  would  have  been 
quite  justified  in  disregarding,  he  at  once  obeyed  and 
fetched  it.  But,  like  other  youths,  he  now  and  then  got 
into  scrapes,  and,  to  use  the  naif  language  of  his  son, 
"he  did  many  good  and  many  foolish  actions." 

As  he  advanced  in  years,  his  mind  developed  rapidly, 
and  he  soon  exhibited  an  extraordinary  degree  of  wisdom, 
though  his  parents  scarcely  gave  him  credit  for  qualities 
quite  apparent  to  strangers ;  and,  as  it  seems,  were  rather 
inclined  to  snub  him  in  favour  of  his  elder  brothers. 
But  this  condition  of  things  did  not  long  continue, 
and  the  following  incident  brought  his  peculiar  talents 
prominently  before  his  people,  and  enabled  him  at  once 
to  assume  a  position  of  great  authority  amongst  them, 
leading,  ultimately,  to  the  absolute  chieftainship  of 
the  tribe.  It  was  a  custom  amongst  the  Maori  chiefs, 
before  the  introduction  of  Christianity,  to  assign  a  wife  to 
each  of  their  male  children,  even  before  the  latter  had 
attained  the  age  of  puberty.  In  the  case  of  Te 
Rauparaha,  a  girl  named  Marore  had  been  given  to  him 
as  the  wife  of  his  boyhood,  of  whom,  as  he  grew  up, 
he  became  very  fond,  and  in  whose  cause  he  obtained  his 
first  experience  as  a  warrior — his  "  baptism  of  fire." 

It  appears  that  his  parents  had  invited  a  large  number 
of  the  tribe  to  a  feast,  and  when  the  food — the  fish,  the 
eels,  and  thekumara — had  been  placed  upon  the  platform, 



Te  Eauparaha  saw  that  the  portion  allotted  to  Marore 
had  no  relish.  This  made  him  very  sad,  and  after  some 
consideration  he  asked  his  father's  permission  to  lead 
a  war  party  into  the  country  of  the  Waikatos,  in  order 
that  some  people  might  be  killed  as  a  relish  for  the 
food  apportioned  to  Marore.  In  those  days  his  wish 
was,  no  doubt,  considered  strictly  reasonable  and  proper 
— strictly  tika  in  fact — and  his  father  at  once  placed 
under  his  leadership  a  number  of  young  warriors,  who 
were,  as  we  may  suppose,  perfectly  willing  to  join  in 
such  an  expedition.  During  this  time,  as  I  have  been 
informed,  Te  Eauparaha  was  suffering  from  some  disease, 
attended  with  a  good  deal  of  physical  pain  ;  but  not- 
withstanding this,  and  against  the  suggestions  of  his 
father  to  postpone  the  expedition  until  his  health  was 
better  established,  he  determined  to  prosecute  it,  and  the 
war  party  advanced  into  the  territory  of  the  Waikatos, 
with  whom,  at  that  time,  they  were  in  profound  peace. 

In  ignorance  of  their  intentions,  their  advanced  parties 
were  permitted  to  enter  a  pa  of  the  enemy,  who, 
however,  soon  discovering  their  error,  flew  to  arms, 
and  succeeded  in  driving  them  out  again  with  some  loss. 
Te  Eauparaha,  with  the  remainder  of  the  taua,  seeing 
the  route  of  his  advanced  guard,  at  once  took  cover, 
unperceived  by  the  Waikatos ;  and  as  the  latter,  in  some 
disorder,  were  pushing  the  pursuit,  he  and  his  warriors 
attacked  them  in  flank  and  rear,  and  defeated  them  with 
much  slaughter,  at  the  same  time  taking  many  prisoners, 
amongst  whom  was  Te  Haunga,  a  principal  chief,  who, 
with  several  others,  was  afterwards  killed  and  eaten  "  as 
a  relish  "  to  the  food  apportioned  to  Marore. 

The  success  attending  this  expedition,  and  the  skill 
shown  by  Te  Eauparaha  in  taking  advantage  of  the 


disorder  of  the  enemy,  at  once  rendered  him  famous  as  a 
Maori  warrior  ;  and  thenceforth  he  occupied  a  position  of 
influence,  not  only  with  his  own  immediate  tribe,  but 
also  with  those  to  which  it  was  allied,  whilst  his  growing 
talents  and  power  were  looked  upon  with  much  respect 
and  dread  by  those  who  had  any  reason  to  fear  his 
prowess  or  his  revenge.  The  event  above  referred  to 
naturally  led  to  frequent  battles  with  the  Waikatos, 
in  which  the  Ngatitoa,  under  Te  Eauparaha,  were 
generally  successful,  although  occasionally  defeated  with 
considerable  loss. 

In  the  intervals  of  peace,  Te  Eauparaha  visited  his 
kindred  at  Maungatautari,  then  under  the  general 
leadership  of  Hape  Te  Tuarangi,  a  distinguished  old 
warrior,  who  had  fought  many  battles  against  the 
Waikato  tribes,  and  particularly  one  at  Kakamutu,  on 
the  Waipa,  in  which  the  latter  were  defeated  with 
tremendous  slaughter.  On  the  death  of  Hape,  which 
will  be  more  specially  referred  to  in  the  sequel,  Te 
Eauparaha  married  his  chief  wife,  Akau,  who  became 
the  mother  of  Tamihana  Te  Eauparaha,  still  living  at 
Otaki  in  1872,  from  whom  I  obtained  a  large  amount 
of  information  respecting  the  career  of  his  celebrated 

Te  Eauparaha  also  kept  up  constant  intercourse  with 
his  friends  at  Eotorua,  and  frequently  visited  Te  Heuheu, 
who  was  much  impressed  with  the  character  of  his 
visitor,  and  became  his  fast  and  valuable  ally.  Besides 
this,  he  made  several  excursions  to  the  Thames  in  order  to 
obtain  the  alliance  of  the  Ngatimaru — then  a  very  power- 
ful people,  but  who  were  subsequently  nearly  annihilated 
by  the  Ngapuhi  from  the  North,  and  by  Te  Waharoa  and 
his  Ngaiterangi  allies,  as  mentioned  in  the  last  chapter. 

68          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

From  the  chiefs  of  this  tribe,  Te  Eauparaha  obtained 
a  musket,  with  a  quantity  of  ammunition,  gifts  of  very 
great  value  at  that  time,  and  indicating  the  estimation  in 
which  he  was  held  by  his  hosts.  He  also  visited 
Kaipara,  where  he  soon  gained  the  friendship  of  the 
Ngatiwhatua,  and  other  tribes  in  that  district,  and  on 
his  way  back  went  to  the  Waitemata — he  succeeded 
in  forming  an  alliance  with  Kiwi  and  the  son  of  Tihi, 
chiefs  of  the  great  tribes  which  then  occupied  that 
part  of  the  country.  I  am  led  to  understand  that 
these  visits  took  place  between  1810  and  1815,  and 
that  Te  Rauparaha  then  entertained  the  design  of 
forming  an  extensive  alliance  against  the  Waikatos, 
under  Te  Whero  Whero,  with  the  intention  of  completely 
destroying  them  ;  but  he  found  it  impossible  to  effect  his 
object,  and  chiefly  for  the  following  reason. 

After  the  establishment  of  the  convict  settlements  in 
Sydney  and  Hobart  Town,  the  South  Seas  were  much 
frequented  by  whale  ships,  and  the  eastern  coast  of  New 
Zealand,  which  then  afforded  a  large  supply  of  these 
valuable  animals,  became  one  of  the  principal  whaling 
grounds.  In  the  course  of  their  voyages  the  ships  often 
resorted  to  the  Bay  of  Islands  and  the  Harbour  of 
Whangaroa  for  supplies  of  water  and  vegetables  ;  and 
during  these  visits,  the  natives  first  learnt  the  use 
and  power  of  the  musket.  The  tribes  with  whom  the 
chief  intercourse  took  place,  were  the  Ngapuhi,  who 
at  once  saw  the  immense  power  which  the  possession  of 
such  a  weapon  would  confer  upon  them  in  their  contests 
with  their  enemies.  Previously  to  this  period,  their  own 
country  had  been  constantly  devastated  by  the  powerful 
and  warlike  tribes  of  the  Thames,  and  they  naturally 
burned  for  revenge. 

70          THE    STIBEING   TIMES   OF   TE    EAUPAEAHA 

Singularly  enough,  they  were  much  aided  in  their 
object  by  the  establishment  of  the  mission  stations, 
formed  in  the  year  1814  under  Marsden,  who  had 
brought  down  with  him,  from  Sydney,  pigs  and 
poultry,  and  many  kinds  of  vegetables,  amongst  which 
the  most  valuable  were  the  Indian  corn  and  the  potato. 
The  pigs  were  suffered  to  run  wild,  and,  having  increased 
very  much,  were  usually  caught  with  dogs  when  wanted 
for  purposes  of  trade.  The  natives  themselves  rarely 
used  them  for  food,  but  they  eagerly  and  successfully 
cultivated  all  the  species  of  vegetables  which  had  been 

Moreover,  during  the  intercourse  which  took  place 
between  them  and  the  whale  ships,  many  natives  visited 
Port  Jackson,  where  they  had  further  opportunities  of 
learning  the  destructive  power  of  the  European  weapons, 
and  the  eagerness  of  the  tribes  to  procure  them  became 
so  great,  that  twenty  hogs,  obtained  at  the  expense  of 
enormous  labour,  and  worth  to  the  ships  more  than 
as  many  pounds,  were  often  given  in  exchange  for  a 
musket  not  worth  ten  shillings.  In  effect,  the  muskets 
usually  sold  to  these  natives  were  of  a  very  worthless 
kind,  and  would  not,  in  a  contest  with  European  troops, 
have  been  considered  particularly  dangerous  weapons ; 
whilst  the  natives'  own  want  of  knowledge  of  the 
proper  mode  of  taking  care  of  them,  soon  led  to  the 
greater  number  of  them  becoming  hopelessly  out  of 

But  unskilfully  as  they  used  the  musket,  and  little 
as  it  might  have  been  feared  by  Europeans,  such  was  the 
dread  of  its  effects  amongst  the  natives,  more  especially 
on  the  part  of  the  tribes  which  did  not  possess  them, 
that  the  strength  of  a  war  party  was,  at  that  time,  not  so 


much  calculated  by  the  number  of  its  members,  as  by  the 
quantity  of  fire-locks  it  could  bring  into  action  ;  and  when 
Paora,  a  northern  chief,  invaded  the  district  of  Whangaroa 
in  1819,  the  terrified  people  described  him  as  having 
twelve  muskets,  whilst  the  name  of  Te  Korokoro,  then  a, 
great  chief  at  the  Bay  of  Islands,  who  was  known  to 
possess  fifty  stand  of  arms,  was  heard  with  terror  for 
upwards  of  200  miles  beyond  its  own  district. 

But  the  musket  was  not  the  only  weapon  which  the 
natives  obtained  from  the  European  traders.  The 
bayonet  and  the  tomahawk,  the  former  of  which  was 
fixed  to  a  long  handle,  began  to  replace  in  their  fights  the 
wooden  spear  and  battle-axe,  and  naturally  added  greatly 
to  the  offensive  power  of  those  who  possessed  them  in 
any  numbers.  As  fast  as  the  Ngapuhi  acquired  these 
arms,  they  made  hostile  expeditions  against  the  Ngati- 
maru,  and  other  tribes  occupying  the  Thames,  and  the 
shores  of  the  Tamaki  and  Waitemata,  carrying  terror  and 
destruction  wherever  they  went.  But  in  proportion  as 
the  whale  ships  and  traders  from  Sydney  extended  their 
intercourse  with  the  natives,  the  Ngatimaru,  the  Ngati- 
haua,  and  the  Arawa,  gradually  acquired  similar  weapons, 
and  thus  fought  on  terms  of  greater  equality ;  and  it  was 
also  during  this  period,  as  mentioned  in  the  last  chapter, 
that  Te  Waharoa  began  to  mature  his  designs  for  the 
destruction  of  the  first  of  these  tribes. 

I  may  here  remark,  that  the  trade  referred  to  was 
almost  confined  to  the  Eastern  side  of  the  North  Island, 
and  that  the  tribes  on  the  West  Coast,  at  all  events  below 
the  Manukau,  had  but  little  opportunity  of  obtaining  the 
much  coveted  weapons.  The  wars  in  which  Ngatimaru 
were  engaged  against  Ngapuhi  and  Ngatihaua,  and  the 
want  of  a  sufficient  quantity  of  fire-arms  amongst  the 


tribes  at  Kaipara  and  Hokianga,  coupled  with  their 
total  absence  amongst  the  other  tribes  on  the  West 
Coast,  went  far  towards  preventing  Te  Eauparaha  from 
carrying  out  his  designs  against  the  Waikato,  whilst  such 
designs  became  gradually  less  feasible,  owing  to  the 
position  of  the  latter,  who,  in  consequence  of  the  offensive 
and  defensive  alliance  which  they  had  formed  with  Te 
Waharoa,  were  enabled,  without  difficulty,  to  obtain 
supplies  of  muskets  and  ammunition. 

When  Te  Eauparaha  found  it  impossible  to  carry  out 
his  design,  he  returned  to  Kawhia,  where,  by  a  succession 
of  victories  over  the  Waikato,  and  by  the  practice  of 
hospitality,  he  greatly  increased  his  power  and  influence 
with  his  own  tribe,  whilst  he  cultivated  the  friendship 
(due  partly  to  good  feeling,  but  largely  to  fear)  of  the 
Ngatiawa,  who  occupied  the  country  to  the  southward, 
stretching  from  Mokau  to  Taranaki.  He  is  represented 
as  having  been,  during  this  period,  "  famous  in  matters 
relative  to  warfare,  cultivating,  generosity,  welcoming  of 
strangers  and  war  parties."  He  is  also  said  to  have 
been  particularly  remarkable  for  the  following  reason  : 
"  If  a  party  of  visitors  arrived  just  as  the  food  of  his 
workmen  was  cooked,  and  if  those  workmen  were 
strangers  to  his  treatment  of  visitors,  and  gave  them 
their  food,  he  ordered  them  to  take  it  back,  saying  that 
fresh  food  was  to  be  cooked  for  the  visitors.  The 
workmen  would  then  be  ashamed,  and  Te  Eauparaha 
applauded  as  a  man  whose  fame  had  travelled  amongst 
all  the  tribes.  When  the  workmen  were  satisfied,  Te 
Eauparaha  would  cook  fresh  food  for  the  visitors,  who, 
when  they  had  partaken,  would  leave.  Hence,  amongst 
his  tribe  a  saying  is  used,  '  Are  you  Te  Eauparaha  ? 

Tamati  Waka  Nene. 

74          THE    STIREING   TIMES   OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

When  his  workmen  are  satisfied,  food  will  be  prepared 
for  visitors.'  " 

It  appears  that  in  1817,  or  about  three  years  before 
Hongi  left  for  England,  and  after  the  failure  of  Te 
Rauparaha's  attempt  to  form  an  alliance  against  Waikato, 
a  large  war  party  arrived  at  Kawhia  under  the  command 
of  Tamati  Waka  Nene  and  of  his  brother  Patuone,  who 
invited  Rauparaha  to  join  them  in  a  raid  upon  the 
southern  tribes.  Tamati  Waka's  people  had  a  consider- 
able number  of  muskets  on  this  occasion,  but  the 
expedition  had  no  special  object  beyond  slaughter  and 
slave-making,  with  the  added  pleasure  of  devouring  the 
bodies  of  the  slain.  Te  Rauparaha  joined  them  with 
many  warriors,  and  the  party  travelled  along  the  coast 
through  the  territory  of  the  Ngatiawa  whose  alliance 
with  Ngatitoa,  however,  saved  them  from  molestation. 
Hostilities  were  commenced  by  an  attack  upon  Ngati- 
ruanui,  who  were  dispersed,  after  great  slaughter.  This 
first  success  was  followed  by  attacks  on  all  the  tribes  on 
the  coast  until  the  taua  reached  Otaki,  great  numbers  of 
people  being  killed,  and  many  slaves  taken,  whilst  the 
remainder  were  driven  into  the  hills  and  fastnesses, 
where  many  of  them  perished  miserably  from  exposure 
and  want. 

At  Otaki  the  invaders  rested,  Rauparaha  visiting 
Kapiti,  which  he  found  in  possession  of  a  section  of  the 
Ngatiapa  tribe,  under  the  chiefs  Potau  and  Kotuku.  It 
would  seem  that  even  at  this  time  Te  Rauparaha,  who 
was  much  struck  with  the  appearance  of  the  country, 
formed  the  design  of  taking  possession  of  it,  and,  with 
his  usual  policy,  determined,  instead  of  destroying  the 
people  he  found  on  the  Island,  to  treat  them  with 
kindness,  though  he  and  the  other  leaders  compelled 


them  to  collect  and  surrender  much  greenstone,  of  which 
this  tribe  especially  had,  during  a  long  intercourse  with 
the  Middle  Island,  and  by  means  of  their  own  conquests 
of  the  Ngaitahu,  obtained  large  and  valuable  quantities. 

The  hostile  party  then  continued  their  course  along 
the  coast,  destroying  great  numbers  of  people.  On  their 
arrival  at  Wellington,  then  called  Whanganui-a-tara, 
they  found  that  the  inhabitants — a  section  of  the 
Ngatikahungunu — alarmed  at  the  approach  of  the  ruthless 
invaders,  had  fled  to  the  Wairarapa.  Thither  followed 
the  taua,  and  discovered  the  Ngatikahungunu,  in  great 
force,  at  a  pa  called  Tawhare  Nikau.  Undaunted, 
however,  by  the  strength  of  the  fortress,  they  attacked 
and  carried  it  with  great  slaughter.  Large  numbers  of 
the  unfortunate  inhabitants  escaped  to  the  hills,  where 
they  suffered  greatly,  whilst  the  invaders,  after  following 
the  fugitives  as  far  as  Kawakawa  and  Porangahau,  killing 
many,  fell  back  upon  Tawhare  Nikau,  in  order  to  gorge 
themselves  upon  the  bodies  of  the  slain. 

The  party  then  returned  to  Whanganui-a-tara  and  pro- 
ceeded to  Omere,  where  they  saw  a  European  vessel 
lying  off  Raukawa,  in  Cook  Strait. 

Tamati  Waka  Nene,  immediately  on  perceiving  the 
ship,  shouted  out  to  Te  Rauparaha,  "  Oh,  Raha,  do  you 
see  that  people  sailing  on  the  sea  ?  They  are  a  very 
good  people,  and  if  you  conquer  this  land  and  hold  inter- 
course with  them  you  will  obtain  guns  and  powder,  and 
become  very  great."  Te  Rauparaha  apparently  wanted 
but  this  extra  incentive  to  induce  him  to  take  permanent 
possession  of  the  country  between  Whanganui-a-tara  and 
Patea,  and  at  once  determined  to  remove  thither  with  his 
tribe,  as  soon  as  he  could  make  such  arrangements  as- 

76          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OP   TE    RAUPARAHA 

would  secure  him  in  the  possession  of  his  intended 

The  taua  returned  along  the  coast  line  as  they  had  first 
come,  killing  or  making  prisoners  of  such  of  the 
inhabitants  as  they  could  find  as  far  as  Patea.  It  was 
during  the  return  of  this  war  party  that  Eangihaeata  took 
prisoner  a  woman  named  Pikinga,  the  sister  of  Arapata 
Hiria,  a  Ngatiapa  chief  of  high  rank,  whom  he  afterwards 
made  his  slave  wife,  a  circumstance  much  and  absurdly 
insisted  upon  in  favour  of  the  Ngatiapa  title  during  the 
investigations  of  the  Native  Lands  Court  into  the 
Manawatu  case.  Laden  with  spoil,  and  accompanied  by 
numerous  slaves,  the  successful  warriors  reached  Kawhia, 
where  Tamati  Waka  Nene  and  Patuone,  with  their 
party,  left  Te  Rauparaha  in  order  to  return  to  their  own 
country  at  Hokianga. 

As  I  have  before  mentioned,  Te  Rauparaha  had,  during 
the  progress  of  this  raid  upon  the  South,  conceived  the 
idea  of  leaving  the  ancient  possessions  of  his  tribe  at 
Kawhia  for  the  purpose  of  settling  at  Kapiti  and  upon 
the  country  on  the  main  land  in  its  vicinity ;  and 
accordingly,  after  the  period  of  festivity  and  rest  usually 
indulged  in  by  a  returned  taua,  he  began  to  take  the 
necessary  steps,  not  only  to  induce  his  own  people  to  accept 
his  resolution,  but  to  enlist  the  sympathies  and  assistance 
of  his  relatives  at  Maungatautari  and  elsewhere.  During 
a  visit  which  he  paid  for  this  purpose  to  the  Ngati- 
raukawa,  he  found  their  great  chief  Hape  Taurangi  in  a 
dying  state,  and  the  circumstances  which  then  occurred 
contributed  greatly  to  the  ultimate  success  of  his  designs. 

It  appears  that,  notwithstanding  the  respect  in  which 
the  offspring  of  the  Maori  aristocracy  are  usually  held 
by  their  own  people,  and  the  influence  they  generally 


exercise  in  matters  affecting  the  tribe,  it  is  not  unusual 
for  the  natural  ariki  of  a  tribe,  or  chief  of  a  hapu,  to  be, 
in  some  respects,  supplanted  by  an  inferior  chief,  unless 
the  hereditary  power  of  the  former  happens  to  be 
accompanied  by  intellect  and  bravery ;  and  such  an 
occurrence  took  place  in  regard  to  the  natural  hereditary 
ariki  of  the  Ngatiraukawa  at  the  death  of  Hape.  Te 
Eauparaha  himself,  though  by  virtue  of  common  descent, 
and  by  marriage  ties,  entitled  to  be  treated  as  a  chief  of 
Ngatiraukawa,  was  not  considered  to  be  high  rank,  on 
the  grounds  that,  in  the  first  place,  he  was  the  offspring 
of  a  junior  branch  of  the  ariki  family  of  Tainui ;  and,  in 
the  next  place,  that  the  influence  primarily  due  to  his 
birth  had  been  weakened  by  the  intermarriage  of  his 
progenitors  with  minor  chiefs  and  with  women  of  other 
tribes.  But  when  Hape,  on  his  death  bed,  the  whole 
tribe  being  assembled,  asked  "  if  his  successor  could 
tread  in  his  steps  and  lead  his  people  on  to  victory,  and 
so  keep  up  the  honour  of  his  tribe,"  not  one  of  his  sons, 
to  whom,  in  succession,  the  question  was  put,  gave  any 

After  a  long  period  of  silence,  Te  Rauparaha,  who  was 
amongst  the  minor  chiefs  and  people,  sitting  at  a  distance 
from  the  dying  man  and  from  the  chiefs  of  high  rank  by 
whom  he  was  surrounded,  got  up  and  said,  I  am  able 
to  tread  in  your  steps,  and  even  do  that  which  you  could 
not  do."  Hape  soon  after  expired,  and  as  Te  Eauparaha 
had  been  the  only  speaker  in  answer  to  his  question,  the 
whole  tribe  acknowledged  him  as  their  leader,  a  position 
which  he  occupied  to  his  dying  day.  But  even  in  this 
position  his  authority  was  limited,  for  though  in  his 
powers  of  mind,  and  as  a  leader  of  a  war  party,  he  was 
admittedly  unsurpassed,  either  by  Te  Waharoa  or  by  the 


great  Ngapuhi  chief,  E  Hongi,  and  therefore  fully  entitled 
to  occupy  a  commanding  position  in  the  tribe,  the  mana 
which  he  acquired  on  the  occasion  in  question  extended 
only  to  the  exercise  of  a  species  of  protecting  power  and 
counsel  whenever  these  were  required,  whilst  the  general 
direction  of  the  affairs  of  the  tribe  still  remained  vested  in 
their  own  hereditary  chiefs.  The  influence  he  had 
obtained,  however,  materially  aided  him  in  ultimately 
inducing  a  large  number  of  the  tribe  to  join  him  in  the 
conquest  and  settlement  of  the  territory  of  the  Ngatiapa. 
Rangitane,  and  Muaupoko,  as  will  be  shown  in  the 

It  may  seem  strange  that  a  people  occupying  the 
fertile  slopes  of  the  Maungatautari  and  the  beautiful 
tract  of  country  stretching  along  the  Waikato  to 
Rangiaowhia  and  Otawhao,  could  have  been  induced  to 
abandon  such  a  country  in  order  to  join  in  the  conquest 
and  settlement  of  a  distant,  and  not  more  fertile, 
territory  ;  but  it  must  be  remembered  that,  at  the  time 
in  question,  the  whole  Maori  people  were  engrossed  by 
one  absorbing  desire — that  of  acquiring  fire-arms — and 
the  inland  position  of  the  Ngatiraukawa,  and  their  known 
wealth  in  much  that  the  natives  then  considered 
valuable,  invited  attack,  whilst  the  former  circumstance 
prevented  them  acquiring  to  any  extent  the  much 
coveted  European  weapons.  It  is  true,  that  through 
their  relatives  at  Rotorua  they  succeeded,  from  time  to 
time,  in  obtaining  some  muskets  and  ammunition,  but 
the  quantity  was  not  sufficiently  large  to  afford  them 
the  means  of  successfully  resisting  the  probable  attacks 
of  the  tribes  nearer  the  coast,  whose  opportunities  of 
trade  with  the  whale  ships  enabled  them  to  acquire  an 
abundant  supply  of  both,  as  well  as  of  tomahawks  and 


other  iron  weapons  of  the  most  deadly  character.  Te 
Eauparaha,  no  doubt,  represented  to  them  the  probability 
of  obtaining  similar  supplies  from  ships  frequenting  the 
shores  of  Cook  Strait,  whilst  the  severe  blow  inflicted  on 
the  tribes  occupying  the  territory  in  question,  by  the 
war  party  under  Tamati  Waka  Nene,  Patuone,  and 
himself,  afforded  a  prospect  of  easy  victory.  It  was 
not  however,  until  after  he  and  his  people  had  reached 
Taranaki,  in  the  course  of  their  migration,  that  he 
succeeded  in  inducing  Whatanui,  one  of  the  principal 
chiefs  of  the  Ngatiraukawa,  to  concur  in  his  project, 
under  circumstances  which  will  be  related  hereafter.  In 
the  meantime,  he  and  his  own  tribe  made  up  their  minds 
to  leave,  and  finally  departed  from  Kawhia  in  1819  or 
1820 ;  but  I  reserve,  for  the  next  chapter,  the  account  of 
this  highly  interesting  event,  and  of  those  which  took 
place  during  their  subsequent  journey  southward. 

80          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 



The  voluntary  migration,  from  their  ancestral  possess- 
ions, of  an  independent  and  comparatively  powerful 
tribe  like  the  Ngatitoa,  with  a  view  to  the  conquest 
and  settlement  of  a  new  territory,  must,  under  any 
circumstances,  be  looked  upon  as  a  remarkable  event  in 
the  later  history  of  "  Old  New  Zealand ;  "  but  our 
wonder  at  the  undertaking  ceases,  when  we  reflect  upon 
the  peculiar  position  occupied  by  this  tribe — and,  in 
fact,  by  all  the  tribes  on  the  western  coast  of  the  North 
Island,  to  the  South  of  the  Manukau — at  the  period 
when  it  took  place,  more  especially  with  reference  to  the 
opportunity  of  acquiring  fire-arms,  which  had  become 
an  absolute  necessity  to  any  tribe  desirous  of  maintaining 
a  separate  independent  existence,  whilst  we  are  forced  to 
admire  the  sagacity  of  the  chief  who  conceived,  and  of 
the  people  who  adopted,  such  a  design.  There  can, 
indeed,  be  litttle  doubt  that  had  the  Ngatitoa  attempted, 
in  the  then  changed  circumstances  of  native  warfare,  to 
retain  possession  of  their  ancient  territory  against  the 
increasing  power  of  the  Waikatos,  more  particularly  after 
the  alliance  of  the  latter  with  Te  Waharoa,  they  would 
certainly  have  been  annihilated. 

I  ought  to  have  mentioned  in  the  last  chapter,  that  in 
the  long  period  during  which  the  Ngatitoa,  Ngatiawa, 


and  Ngatitama  occupied  adjoining  districts,  frequent 
intermarriages  took  place  between  members  of  these 
tribes,  so  that  the  leading  chiefs,  especially,  of  each  came 
to  be  connected  with  those  of  the  others  by  ties  of  blood. 
Te  Eauparaha  himself  was  in  this  position,  and  this 
circumstance,  added  to  his  great  fame  as  a  warrior  and 
statesman,  gave  him  an  influence  in  the  councils  of 
Ngatiawa  and  Ngatimata,  which  was  of  much  value  and 
importance  to  him  in  the  furtherance  of  his  immediate 
projects,  whilst  they  ultimately  led  to  his  example  being 
followed  by  those  tribes,  after  the  severe  losses  inflicted 
upon  them  by  Te  Whero  Whero  and  the  Waikatos  at 

It  appears,  indeed,  that  long  before  this  blow  fell  upon 
them,  Te  Eauparaha  had  pointed  out  the  danger  to  which 
they  would  be  exposed  at  the  hands  of  the  Waikato 
chief,  when  he  and  his  people  no  longer  stood  between 
them  and  the  latter.  But  the  United  Ngatiawa  and 
Ngatitama  were  at  that  time  a  very  powerful  tribe,  their 
ancient  mana  as  warriors  extending  through  the  length 
and  breadth  of  the  land,  and  they  ridiculed  the  possibility 
of  serious  defeat  or  disaster  befalling  them,  and  even 
urged  Te  Eauparaha  himself  to  abandon  his  design  as 
unnecessary  and  as  being  incompatible  with  the  honour 
of  his  tribe.  But  the  sagacious  chief  of  the  Ngatitoa 
had  seen  the  change  produced  in  the  relative  positions  of 
the  Ngapuhi  and  Ngatiwhatua,  on  the  one  side,  and  of 
Ngatimaru  and  other  Thames  people  on  the  other,  owing 
to  the  opportunities  possessed  by  the  former  of  acquiring, 
in  abundance,  the  powerful  European  weapons,  and  he 
had  early  appreciated  the  fact  that,  in  all  future  contests 
in  New  Zealand,  the  party  which  could  bring  only  the 


wooden  spear  and  battle-axe  into  the  field,  against  the 
musket  and  bayonet,  must  eventually  be  destroyed. 

On  this  point,  very  decisive  testimony  is  given  by 
Major  Cruise,  of  the  84th  Eegiment,  in  his  account  of 
his  residence  in  New  Zealand  in  1819  and  1820.  He 
mentions  that,  on  the  arrival  of  the  "  Dromedary  "  store 
ship  at  the  Bay  of  Islands,  for  the  purpose  of  taking  in 
a  cargo  of  kauri  spars,  he  found  the  people  of  the  Bay 
daily  expecting  the  return  of  a  numerous  war  party, 
which  had  started  some  months  previously  for  the 
purpose  of  attacking  the  natives  at  the  Eiver  Thames. 
Shortly  afterwards,  in  effect,  this  party  arrived  at  the 
head  of  the  Bay,  and  he  and  some  of  the  other  officers 
of  the  "Dromedary,"  went  to  meet  it.  The  returned 
party  occupied  a  fleet  of  about  fifty  canoes,  many  of 
them  seventy  or  eighty  feet  long,  and  few  less  than 
sixty  ;  all  of  them  were  filled  with  warriors,  who  stood 
up  and  shouted  as  they  passed  the  European  boat, 
holding  up  numbers  of  human  heads  as  trophies  of  their 

The  barter  of  powder  and  muskets,  he  says,  carried  on 
by  the  whalers,  had  already  distributed  some  hundred 
stand  of  arms  amongst  the  inhabitants  of  the  Bay,  and 
as  the  natives  of  the  Thames  were  unprovided  with 
similar  weapons,  they  made  little  opposition  to  their 
more  powerful  invaders,  who,  in  that  instance,  told  him 
that  they  had  killed  200,  whilst  they  returned  with  the 
loss  of  only  four  men.  Tui,  one  of  the  principal  chiefs 
of  the  Bay,  in  a  conversation  with  Major  Cruise  on  this 
occasion,  made  one  continued  boast  of  the  atrocities  he 
had  committed  during  an  excursion  to  the  same  place 
about  two  months  before,  and  dwelt  with  marked  pleasure 
upon  an  instance  of  his  generalship,  when,  having  forced 


a  small  party  of  his  enemies  into  a  narrow  place,  whence 
there  was  no  egress,  he  was  enabled,  successively,  to 
shoot  twenty-two  of  them,  without  their  having  the 
power  of  making  the  slightest  resistance. 

Now,  such  facts  as  these  were  well  known  to  Te 
Rauparaha,  and  satisfied  him  that  the  utmost  valour, 
backed  even  by  very  superior  numbers,  must  be  of  no 
avail  against  a  weapon  of  so  deadly  a  character  as  the 
musket,  when  wielded  by  so  daring  and  bloodthirsty  a 
people  as  the  New  Zealanders.  He,  therefore,  never 
wavered  in  his  design,  and,  from  the  time  when  Tamati 
Waka  Nene  pointed  out  the  ship  sailing  in  Cook  Strait, 
until  his  actual  departure  from  Kawhia  at  the  head  of 
his  people,  his  mind  and  his  energies  were  constantly 
engaged  in  devising  the  means  of  carrying  it  to  a 
successful  issue.  It  was  not,  however,  until  upwards  of 
two  years  after  the  return  of  the  war  party,  mentioned 
in  the  last  chapter,  that  the  necessary  arrangements  for 
the  migration  were  completed.  During  this  interval  he 
frequently  visited  the  Ngatiraukawa,  at  Maungatautari, 
for  the  purpose  of  urging  them  to  join  him,  whilst 
he  also  held  constant  intercourse  with  the  chiefs  of 
Ngatitama  and  Ngatiawa,  in  regard  to  the  assistance  his- 
people  would  require  from  them,  whilst  passing  through 
their  territory. 

I  must  caution  my  readers  from  inferring  from  the 
relationship  and  general  friendliness  which  existed 
between  the  Ngatitoa  and  Ngatiawa,  that  either  of  these 
tribes  would  have  felt  much  delicacy  or  compunction  in 
destroying  the  other.  At  the  period  in  question,  more, 
perhaps,  than  during  any  other  in  the  history  of  the 
race,  moral  considerations  had  but  little  weight  in 
determining  the  conduct  either  of  the  individual  or  of 


the  tribe.  The  ruthless  wars  which  were  then  being 
prosecuted  all  over  the  North  were  rousing,  to  the  highest 
pitch,  the  savage  instincts  of  the  race,  and  even  the 
nearest  relatives  did  not  hesitate  in  destroying  and 
devouring  each  other.  Of  this  utter  abandonment  of 
all  moral  restraint  many  frightful  instances  might  be 
quoted,  but  the  fact  is  too  well  known  to  those  who  are 
acquainted  with  the  history  of  the  New  Zealanders 
during  the  thirty  years  preceding  the  colonization  of  the 
Islands  by  the  Europeans  to  require  demonstration  here. 

But  however  essential  to  the  success  of  the  enterprise 
were  the  friendship  and  co-operation  of  Ngatiawa,  it  was 
no  less  necessary  that  Te  B/auparaha  should  be  enabled 
to  effect  his  object  without  danger  of  molestation  from 
his  old  enemies,  the  Waikatos,  who  would  naturally  be 
disposed  to  take  advantage  of  any  favourable  circumstance 
in  connection  with  the  event  in  question,  in  order  to 
wreak  their  vengeance  upon  a  foe  from  whom  they  had 
received  many  disastrous  blows. 

In  the  last  chapter,  I  mentioned  that  the  Ngati- 
maniapoto,  then  occupying  the  country  extending  along 
the  coast  to  the  northward  of  Kawhia,  were  connected 
by  common  descent,  as  well  as  by  intermarriages,  with 
the  Ngatitoa ;  and  I  may  now  add  that,  although 
occasional  disputes  took  place  between  these  two  tribes, 
they  had  always  lived  on  terms  of  friendship,  and  usually 
made  common  cause  against  an  enemy.  But  the 
Ngatimaniapoto  were  also  in  a  considerable  degree, 
connected  with  the  Waikato  tribes,  under  the  leadership 
of  Te  Whero  Whero ;  and  Te  Eauparaha,  determined  to 
make  use  of  this  double  connection  in  order  to  establish 
a  firm  peace  between  himself  and  the  great  Waikato 
chief  before  he  commenced  his  movements  towards  the 

86          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OP   TE    RAUPARAHA 

south.  Through  the  influence  of  Kukutai  and  Te 
Kanawa,  with  both  of  whom  Te  Ruaparaha  was  on  good 
terms,  he  succeeded,  very  soon  after  his  return  from  the 
expedition  under  Waka  and  himself,  in  inducing  Te 
Whero  Whero  to  agree  to  a  cessation  of  hostilities,  whilst 
he  also  informed  them  of  his  intention  to  leave  Kawhia, 
with  his  people,  and  promised  to  cede  it  to  Te  Whero 
Whero  on  his  departure. 

The  easy  acquisition  of  so  valuable  a  territory  was 
naturally  looked  upon  by  this  chief  as  a  matter  of  great 
moment  to  his  people,  besides  the  even  more  important 
circumstance  attaching  to  it,  namely,  that  the  removal 
of  a  powerful  enemy  would  enable  him  to  concentrate 
his  forces  along  his  eastern  frontier,  so  as  to  keep  in 
check  the  increasing  power  of  Te  Waharoa,  whom  he 
dreaded,  notwithstanding  that  an  alliance  then  existed 
between  them.  The  proposed  peace  was  accordingly 
made,  and  Te  Rauparaha  and  his  people  being  thus  as 
secure  as  could  be  expected  against  attack  on  the  part  of 
the  Waikatos,  and  having  made  satisfactory  arrangements 
with  Ngatitama  and  Ngatiawa  for  their  passage  through 
the  territory  of  the  latter,  proceeded  to  make  final 
preparations  for  departure. 

The  principal  point  in  this  respect  was  the  necessity 
of  providing  for  a  supply'of  food  during  the  journey, 
which  must  obviously  be  a  slow  one  on  account  of  the 
aged,  and  of  the  women  and  children,  whilst  the  distance 
was  too  great  to  be  accomplished  within  a  single  season, 
and  it  was  essential,  therefore,  to  establish  resting 
places  where  cultivations  could  be  carried  on  in  order  to 
provide  for  the  continuation  of  the  march  in  the  ensuing 

88          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OP   TE   RAUPARAHA 

In  the  next  place,  Te  Rauparaha  knew  that  he  could 
not  conceal  his  intentions  from  the  tribes  whom  he  was 
about  to  invade  ;  and  that,  although  their  power  had  been 
greatly  shaken  during  the  previous  raid,  he  could  scarcely 
hope  to  occupy  their  territory  without  further  resistance. 
It  was,  therefore,  necessary  to  provide  for  the  con- 
tingencies which  the  possibility  of  such  resistance 
naturally  involved,  and  this  could  be  done  only  by  a 
careful  management  and  disposition  of  the  forces  under 
his  command,  and  by  securing  the  co-operation  of  some 
of  his  more  immediate  relatives  and  allies. 

Testing  his  foresight  in  all  these  matters  by  the 
ultimate  success  of  his  enterprise,  we  are  entitled  to 
believe  that  the  arrangements  he  made  were  well 
calculated  to  ensure  the  safe  accomplishment  of  his 
design  ;  and  we  know,  at  all  events,  that  during  the 
interval  which  took  place  between  the  peace  with  Te 
Whero  Whero  and  the  actual  departure  of  himself  and  his 
people  from  Kawhia,  Te  Rauparaha  took  care  to  provide 
for  such  supplies  of  food  as  would  carry  them  through 
the  first  stage  of  their  intended  journey,  whilst  he  also 
determined  in  detail  the  principal  arrangements  for  the 
entire  march. 

These  preparations  having  all  been  satisfactorily 
completed  by  the  beginning  of  the  year  1819,  he  visited 
Waikato,  for  the  last  time,  in  order  to  bid  farewell  to 
Kukutai,  to  Pehikorehu,  to  Whero  Whero,  to  Te  Kanawa, 
and  to  all  the  chiefs  of  Waikato,  saying  to  them, 
"  Farewell;  remain  on  our  land  at  Kawhia;  I  am  going 
to  take  Kapiti  for  myself,  do  not  follow  me."  He  then 
returned  to  Kawhia,  where  he  at  once  assembled  his 
tribe  and  started  for  the  South,  the  number  leaving 
Kawhia  itself,  including  persons  of  all  ages,  being  about 


400,  of  whom  170  were  tried  fighting  men.  On  the 
morning  of  the  day  of  their  departure,  he  and  his  people 
came  out  of  their  pa  at  Te  Arawi,  having  previously 
burned  the  carved  house  named  Te  Urungu-Paraoa-a-te- 
Titi-Matama.  They  then  ascended  the  hill  at  Moeatoa, 
and  looking  back  to  Kawhia  were  very  sad  at  leaving  the 
home  of  their  fathers.  They  cried  over  it,  and  bade  it 
farewell,  saying,  "  Kawhia  remain  here  !  The  people  of 
Kawhia  are  going  to  Kapiti,  to  Waipounamu." 

Savage,  even  ruthless,  as  those  people  may  have  been, 
we  can  still  understand  their  sorrow  at  leaving  their 
ancestral  possessions.  "  The  love  of  the  New  Zealander 
for  his  land  is  not,"  says  White  (from  whom  I  have 
before  quoted  on  this  point),  "  the  love  of  a  child  for  his 
toys.  His  title  is  connected  with  many  and  powerful 
associations  in  his  mind ;  his  love  for  the  homes  of  his 
fathers  being  connected  with  the  deeds  of  their  bravery, 
with  the  feats  of  his  own  boyhood,  and  the  long  rest  of 
his  ancestors  for  generations."  Every  nook  and  inlet  of 
the  beautiful  harbour  of  Kawhia  was  endeared  to  the 
departing  people,  not  only  by  its  picturesque  beauty, 
which  the  New  Zealander  fully  appreciates,  but  also  by 
its  association  with  the  most  ancient  traditions  of  the 
tribe.  Every  hill,  every  valley,  was  connected,  in  their 
memory,  with  scenes  of  childish  joy,  whilst  many  of  the 
singular  and  gloomy  caverns  in  which  the  district 
abounds,  were  crowded  with  the  remains  of  their 
ancestors,  and  were  the  subjects  of  their  reverence  and 
awe  ;  and  from  these  circumstances,  not  less  than  from 
the  uncertainty  which  necessarily  hung  over  the  future 
of  the  tribe,  we  may  estimate  the  strength  of  their  faith 
in  the  sagacity  of  the  chief  who  had  induced  them  to 
embark  in  so  remarkable  a  project. 

90          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA 

The  march  was  at  length  commenced,  and  at  the  end 
of  the  third  or  fourth  day  the  people  arrived  at  the  pa  of 
Puohoki,  where  Te  Eauparaha  determined  on  leaving, 
under  a  sufficient  guard,  a  number  of  the  women, 
including  his  own  wife,  Akau,  who,  by  reason  of 
pregnancy,  was  unfit  for  travel.  The  remainder  of  the 
tribe  continued  their  journey,  and  settled  for  the  season 
at  Waitara,  Kaweka,  and  Taranaki,  living  in  the  pas  of 
the  Ngatiawa  and  Ngatitama. 

Shortly  after  this,  Te  Eauparaha  determined  to  return 
to  Te  Puohu's  pa,  in  order  to  bring  up  the  women  who 
had  been  left  behind,  and  he  selected  twenty  of  his 
warriors  to  accompany  him.  His  tribe  were  unwilling 
that  he  should  undertake  this  expedition  with  so  small 
a  number  of  men,  urging  him  to  go  in  force  in  order  to 
prevent  the  risk  of  any  treacherous  attack  upon  his 
party.  Te  Euaparaha,  however,  insisted  on  limiting  his 
followers  to  the  twenty  men  he  had  chosen,  and  started 
on  his  journey. 

On  crossing  the  Mokau  Eiver,  he  found  the  body  of 
Eangihaeata's  only  child,  who  had  been  drowned  from 
Topiora's  canoe  as  she  and  part  of  the  tribe  came  down 
the  coast  during  the  general  migration.  It  was  in  order 
to  commemorate  this  circumstance  that  the  name  Mokau, 
as  a  nickname,  was  assumed  by  Te  Eangihaeata.  Te 
Eauparaha  wrapped  the  body  of  the  child  in  his  clothing, 
and  carried  it  with  him  to  Puohu's  pa,  where  it  was 
interred  with  due  solemnity.  On  his  arrival,  he  found 
the  women  and  the  people  he  had  left  all  safe,  and  at 
once  made  arrangements  for  removing  them  to  Waitara. 
In  the  meantime  his  wife,  Akau,  had  given  birth  to 
Tamihana,  who  was  living  at  Otaki  in  1872. 



On  the  third  day  after  his  arrival  the  party  left  the  pa, 
Te  Eauparaha  carrying  his  infant  child  on  his  back  in  a 
basket.  Just  before  reaching  Mokau,  it  being  dusk,  they 
were  threatened  by  a  considerable  war  party  of  Ngatimani- 
apoto,  who  had  crept  down  the  coast  after  the  evacuation 
of  Kawhia  and  the  surrounding  district,  and  Rauparaha 

Te  Rangihaeata. 

had  strong  reason  to  fear  that  he  and  his  people  would  be 
attacked  and  cut  off.  By  a  clever  stratagem,  however, 
he  imposed  upon  the  enemy.  After  clothing  twenty  of 
the  women  in  men's  mats,  and  placing  feathers  in  their 
hair,  and  arming  them  with  war  clubs,  he  sent  them 
forward  under  the  charge  of  his  wife,  Akau,  a  woman  of 


commanding  stature,  and  who,  on  this  occasion,  wore  a 
red  mat  named  Hukeumu,  and  brandished  her  weapon  and 
otherwise  acted  as  if  she  were  a  redoubtable  warrior, 
whilst  Te  Eauparaha  himself  covered  the  retreat  with 
the  men,  the  remainder  of  the  party  marching  between 
these  two  bodies. 

The  Ngatimaniapoto,  mistaking  the  strength  of  Te 
Rauparaha's  force,  commenced  a  retreat,  but  were 
attacked  by  him,  and  five  of  their  number  killed,  amongst 
whom  was  Tutakara,  their  leader,  who  was  slain  by 
Rangihoungariri,  a  young  relative  of  Te  Rauparaha, 
already  renowned  as  a  warrior.  The  party  then  con- 
tinued their  march  and  reached  the  Mokau  River  at 
dark,  but  were  unable  to  cross  it  in  consequence  of  its 
being  swollen  by  rain  and  the  tide  being  high. 

Ruaparaha  knewT  that  the  danger  was  not  over,  and 
that  the  Ngatimaniapoto  would,  under  cover  of  night, 
attempt  to  take  revenge  for  their  loss.  He  therefore 
ordered  twelve  large  fires  to  be  made,  at  some  distance 
from  each  other,  and  three  of  the  women  of  the  party, 
still  disguised  as  men,  to  be  placed  at  each  fire,  to  which 
he  also  assigned  one  of  his  warriors,  whilst  he,  with  the 
remainder,  acted  as  scouts.  The  men  near  the  fires 
were  to  keep  watch  during  the  night,  and  occasionally 
to  address  the  others,  saying,  "  Be  strong,  oh  people,  to 
fight  on  the  morrow  if  the  enemy  return.  Do  not  consider 
life.  Consider  the  valour  of  your  tribe."  Besides  this, 
the  women  were  directed  to  make  much  noise  with  their 
speeches,  so  that  Haiki  even  might  hear  their  voices. 
This  further  stratagem  appears  completely  to  have 
deceived  Ngatimaniapoto,  who  did  not  attempt  to  molest 
them  any  further. 


During  the  night,  however,  a  peculiar  incident, 
illustrative  of  Maori  life,  occurred,  which  might  have 
been  productive  of  disaster  but  for  the  course  taken  by 
Te  Eauparaha.  Amongst  the  women  who  were  with 
the  party  was  Tangahoe,  the  wife  of  the  chief,  who  had 
an  infant  with  her.  This  child  in  its  restlessness  began 
to  cry,  and  Te  Rauparaha,  fearing  that  his  stratagem 
would  be  betrayed  by  the  cries  of  the  child,  told  its 
mother  to  choke  it,  saying,  "  I  am  that  child."  The 
parents  at  once  obeyed  the  command,  and  killed  the 

Towards  midnight  the  river  fell  considerably,  and  at 
low  tide  the  party  left  their  fires  and  crossed  it,  continuing 
their  march  until  they  reached  a  pa  of  the  Ngatitama, 
greatly  rejoicing  at  their  escape.  Early  on  the  following 
morning  Rauparaha's  party,  with  a  reinforcement  of 
Ngatitama  and  Ngatiawa,  returned  to  the  spot  where 
the  fight  of  the  previous  afternoon  had  taken  place,  and 
secured  the  bodies  of  Tutakara  and  the  others  who  had 
been  killed.  These  were  taken  to  Mokau,  were  they 
were  cut  up  and  eaten,  amidst  great  rejoicings  on  the 
part  of  Ngatiawa  and  Ngatitama  at  the  chance  thus 
afforded  them  of  paying  off  some  old  grudge  which  they 
had  against  Ngatimaniapoto. 

The  success  of  the  stratagems  employed  by  Te 
Rauparaha  on  this  occasion,  added  greatly  to  to  his 
renown  as  a  warrior,  and,  moreover,  invested  him  with 
an  attribute  of  almost  sanctity,  not  only  in  the  eyes  of  his 
own  tribe,  but  also  in  those  of  the  allies.  Te  Rauparaha 
then  joined  the  main  body  of  his  people,  who  were 
engaged  in  the  necessary  preparations  for  the  resumption 
of  their  migration. 

"94          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA 

Shortly  after  this,  it  would  appear  that  Te  Whero  Whero 
and  Te  Waharoa,  deeming  the  opportunity  a  good  one 
for  striking  a  deadly  blow  against  Te  Rauparaha,  had 
collected  a  large  force  at  the  head  of  the  Waipa,  with 
which  they  marched  upon  Taranaki,  intending  to  attack 
the  Ngatitoa  at  Motunui,  before  the  latter  could  obtain 
any  material  assistance  from  Ngatiawa  or  Ngatitarna,  the 
main  body  of  whom  wen^Stationed  chiefly  at  Te  Kawaka, 
Urenui,  and  other  places. 

The  plans  of  the  Waikato  leaders  were  so  carefully 
laid  in  this  resp^it,  that  Te  Rauparaha  received  no 
intimation  of  the*ir  advance -phtil  they  were  close  upon 
him,  but  he  at  once  sent  intelligence  to  Kaiaia,  the 
leading  chief  of  the  Ngatitama,  since  better  known  by  the 
name  of  Ta  Ringa  Kuri,  with  instructions  to  join  him  at 
Motunui.  However,  before  Kaiaia  could  come  to  his 
assistance  he  assembled  his  own  forces,  including  a  small 
body  of  Ngatiawa  ;  and,  having  a  better  knowledge  of  the 
country  than  the  enemy,  he  fell  upon  them  suddenly,  his 
forces  attacking  in  a  compact  body. 

After  encountering  an  obstinate  resistance,  he  succeeded 
in  completely  routing  them  with  a  loss  of  nearly  150  men, 
including  the  principal  chiefs,  Hiakai  and  Mama,  whilst 
many  other  chiefs,  and  a  large  number  of  inferior  people, 
were  taken  prisoners.  The  latter  were  hung,  and  their 
bodies,  as  well  as  those  of  the  men  who  had  fallen  in 
battle,  were  duly  devoured,  with  all  the  ceremonies 
attendant  upon  such  a  feast  after  a  great  and  successful 

Te  Whero  Whero  arid  Waharoa  were  the  only  great 
chiefs  of  note  who  escaped  on  this  occasion,  the  slaughter 
of  leaders  having  been  peculiarly  heavy,  and  even  they 
owed  their  lives  to  the  connivance  of  Te  Rauparaha, 


who,  apparently  for  reasons  of  his  own  of  which  I  am 
not  informed,  but  possibly  to  avoid  driving  them  to 
desperation,  did  not  care  to  attack  them  on  the  following 

It  is  said,  whether  truly  or  not  I  cannot  decide,  that 
Te  Waharoa  did  not  exhibit  his  usual  bravery  on  this 
occasion,  but  fled  early  in  the  day.  vlt  appears,  too,  that 
had  Kaiaia's  portion  of  £he  Ngati'tama  arrived  in  time  to 
take  part  in  the  battle,  the  whole  of  the  Waikato  force 
would  have  been  destroyed.  Be  this  as  it  may,  during 
the  night  after  the  battle,  Te  Whero  Whero  approached 
the  camp  of  the  Ngatitoa,  and  cried  out  to  Te  Eauparaha, 
"  Oh,  Raha,  how  am  I  and  my  people  to  be  saved  ?  "  Te 
Rauparaha  replied,  "  You  must  run  away  this  night.  Do 
not  remain.  Go,  make  haste."  Te  Whero  Whero  and 
his  men  fled  during  the  night,  leaving  their  fires  burning ; 
and,  when  Kaiaia's  forces  came  up  on  the  next  morning, 
they  found  the  Waikato  camp  deserted,  whilst  the  bodies 
of  many  of  those  who  had  been  wounded  in  the  previous 
day's  engagement,  and  had  died  during  the  night,  were 
left  behind.  These  bodies  were  at  once  cut  up  and 
devoured  by  Ngatitama,  Te  Rauparaha  and  his  people 
joining  in  the  feast. 

After  all  danger  of  further  attack  on  the  part  of 
Waikato  had  ceased,  Te  Rauparaha  determined,  before 
resuming  the  movement  southward,  again  to  visit  his 
friends  at  Maungatautari,  in  order  to  induce  the  latter,  if 
possible,  to  join  him  in  the  expedition.  For  this  purpose 
he  travelled  to  Taupo  taking  the  road  from  Taranaki  by 
the  Upper  Wanganui  and  Tuhua.  At  Tuhua  he  had  a 
long  conference  with  Te  Heuheu,  who  promised  to  afford 
.him  any  assistance  he  could  in  effecting  his  settlement 

96          THE    STIBKING   TIMES   OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

at  Kapiti  and  on  the  main  land,  but  would  not  consent 
to  take  any  other  part  in  the  undertaking. 

He  then  proceeded  to  Opepe,  on  Lake  Taupo,  where  a 
large  number  of  the  Ngatiraukawa  had  assembled,  under 
Whatanui,  in  order  to  discuss  Te  Eauparaha's  proposals. 
Here  a  great  tangi  was  held,  at  which  Whatanui  made  a 
speech  to  Te  Eauparaha,  and  gave  him  many  presents, 
as  they  had  not  met  for  a  length  of  time.  After  the 
ordinary  ceremonies  were  concluded,  Te  Eauparaha  again 
opened  his  proposals  to  the  assembled  chiefs,  representing 
the  many  advantages  that  would  accrue  from  adopting 
them,  and  particularly  insisting  on  the  opportunity  it 
would  give  the  tribe  of  obtaining  abundant  supplies  of 
fire-arms,  as  Kapiti  and  other  parts  of  Cook  Strait  had 
already  begun  to  be  visited  by  European  ships.  He  also 
dwelt  on  the  rich  and  productive  character  of  the  land, 
and  the  ease  with  which  it  might  be  conquered,  whilst 
there  was  nothing  to  prevent,  at  the  same  time  a  large 
number  of  the  tribe  from  remaining  at  Maungatautari,  in 
order  to  retain  their  ancient  possessions  there.  To  all 
this,  however,  Whatanui  gave  no  reply,  and  the  meeting 
broke  up  without  any  indication  that  any  part  of  the 
tribe  would  join  in  the  proposed  expedition. 

Te  Eauparaha  then  visited  other  sections  of  the  tribe, 
and  another  great  meeting  took  place,  at  which  he  was 
not  present.  At  this  meeting  the  chief  objection  raised 
was,  that  by  joining  Te  Eauparaha  he  would  become 
their  chief,  and  there  was  an  unwillingness  on  the  part 
of  the  tribe,  notwithstanding  what  had  occurred  at  the 
death  of  Hape,  entirely  to  throw  off  their  allegiance  to 
their  own  hereditary  arikis.  This  resolution  was 
communicated  to  Te  Eauparaha  by  Horohau,  one  of  the 
sons  of  Hape,  by  Akau,  then  Te  Eauparaha's  wife,  and 


the  reasons  specially  assigned  for  it  grieved  Te  Rauparaha 
very  much. 

Seeing  the  apparent  impossibility  of  inducing 
Whatanui's  people  to  join  him  in  his  project,  he  went 
on  to  Rotorua,  and  ultimately  to  Tauranga,  where  he 
urged  Te  Waru  to  join  him.  Te  Waru,  however,  refused 
to  leave  Tauranga  on  account  of  his  love  for  that  place, 
and  for  the  Islands  of  Motiti  and  Tuhua. 

Whilst  Te  Rauparaha  was  at  Tauranga,  news  reached 
that  place  that  Hongi  Heke,  with  the  Ngapuhi,  was 
besieging  the  great  pa  of  the  Ngatimaru  at  the  Thames 
which,  after  some  delay,  they  took,  as  mentioned  in  a 
former  chapter,  slaughtering  great  numbers  of  the 
inhabitants.  Amongst  others  of  the  killed  on  this 
occasion,  were  the  infant  children  of  Tokoahu,  who  had 
married  a  grand  niece  of  Te  Rauparaha,  He  appears  to 
have  been  greatly  exasperated  at  the  absurd  manner  in 
which  the  people  of  his  pa  had  permitted  it  to  be  taken, 
and  at  the  destruction  of  his  relatives,  and  at  once  went 
over  to  Rotorua,  whither  another  taua  of  the  Ngapuhi, 
under  Pomare,  had  proceeded  after  the  defeat  of 
Ngatimaru.  Here  he  had  an  interview  with  Pomare, 
and  expressed  his  determination  to  kill  some  of  the 
Ngapuhi  as  a  payment  for  the  slaughter  of  Tokoahu's 
children,  to  which  Pomare  consented,  he  being  also  in 
some  degree  connected  by  marriage  with  Tokoahu. 

The  Ngapuhis,  accompanied  by  Te  Rauparaha, 
proceeded  to  Paeoterangi,  where  Tuhourangi  and  some 
others  were  duly  sacrificed,  with  great  solemnity,  in  order 
to  appease  the  manes  of  Tokoahu's  children.  Pomare 
then  gave  over  to  Te  Rauparaha  a  number  of  men  who 
had  been  under  the  leadership  of  Tuhourangi,  who,  from 
that  time,  became  attached  to  and  incorporated  with 


98          THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA 

Ngatitoa,  and  accompanied  him  on  his  return  to  Taranaki 
shortly  after  the  sacrifice  in  question. 

On  reaching  Taranaki,  he  made  preparations  for 
continuing  the  migration,  and  succeeded  in  inducing  Wi 
Kingi  Eangitake,  since  celebrated  in  connection  with  the 
Waitara  war,  and  his  father,  Reretawhangawhanga,  with 
many  other  chiefs,  and  a  considerable  number  of  the 
Ngatiawa  tribe,  to  accompany  him,  his  followers  then 
consisting  of  his  own  people  (the  Ngatitoa),  numbering 
200  fighting  men,  of  the  Ngapuhis  who  had  been 
transferred  to  him  by  Pomare,  and  of  Wi  Kingi 's 
Ngatiawas,  numbering  nearly  400  fighting  men,  and  their 
several  families. 

During  the  interval  between  the  commencement  of  the 
migration  and  its  resumption  from  Taranaki,  after  Te 
Rauparaha's  last  return  thither,  a  large  war  party  of 
Waikatos,  under  Tukorehu,  Te  Kepa,  Te  Kawau  (Apihai), 
and  other  chiefs,  had  descended  the  East  Coast,  whence 
they  invaded  the  territory  which  Te  Rauparaha  was 
about  to  seize.  The  Muaupoko,  Rangitane,  and 
Ngatiapa  were  all  attacked  on  this  occasion,  and  again 
suffered  great  loss,  a  circumstance  which  became  known 
to  Te  Rauparaha  through  some  Ngatiraukawa  men  who 
had  joined  the  Waikatos  in  their  expedition,  and  who 
had  communicated  its  results  to  him  during  his  last  visit 
to  Maungatautari. 

It  appears,  moreover,  that  after  he  had  left  Taupo, 
Whatanui  and  a  large  party  of  Ngatiraukawa  made  up 
their  minds  to  join  him  at  Kapiti,  but  instead  of 
following  the  same  route  which  he  intended  to  take,  they 
determined  to  proceed  via  Ahuriri,  having  been  invited 
thither  by  the  Ngatikahungunu,  for  some  purpose  which 
I  cannot  clearly  make  out.  On  their  arrival  there, 

100        THE    STIRRING    TIMES    OF    TE    RAUPARAHA 

however,  a  dispute  took  place  between  the  two  parties, 
and  a  battle  ensued,  in  which  the  Ngatiraukawa  were 
defeated  with  considerable  slaughter,  the  remainder  of 
the  party  being  forced  to  retreat  upon  Maungatautari. 

Late  in  the  autumn  of  1819,  no  doubt  after  the 
ordinary  crop  of  kumara  had  been  gathered  in,  Te 
Rauparaha  resumed  the  march,  which  was  uninterrupted 
until  they  reached  Patea,  where  five  of  the  Ngatitoa  men, 
and  a  male  slave  of  Topiora's  named  Te  Ratutonu,  who 
had  formerly  been  a  chief,  were  murdered.  To  avenge 
this  murder,  Te  Rauparaha  killed  a  number  of  the  people 
occupying  Waitotara,  and  thence  his  party  proceeded  to 
Wanganui,  the  greater  portion  of  the  women  and  children 
travelling  along  the  coast  in  canoes,  whilst  the  warriors, 
with  most  of  the  leading  chiefs,  travelled  by  land, 
Te  Rauparaha  himself,  however,  travelling  by  water  in  a 
large  canoe  taken  from  the  Waitotara  people. 

I  may  here  incidentally  mention  that  his  designs,  at 
this  time,  were  not  confined  to  the  acquisition  of  Kapiti, 
and  the  adjacent  country  ;  he  had  also  made  up  his  mind 
to  invade  the  Middle  Island  after  he  had  become  well 
settled  in  his  new  abode,  in  order  to  obtain  the  great 
treasures  of  greenstone  which  were  believed  to  be  in 
possession  of  the  people  of  that  Island.  Of  course,  he 
could  only  hope  to  affect  this  by  obtaining  a  number  of 
large  canoes,  and,  to  use  the  words  of  his  son,  "  canoes 
were  at  that  time  his  great  desire,  for  by  them  only  could 
he  cross  over  to  the  Island  of  Waipounamu." 

Amongst  the  leading  chiefs  who  accompanied  Te 
Rauparaha,  was  Rangihaeata,  who,  as  will  be  remembered, 
had,  during  the  previous  invasion,  taken  prisoner  a 
Ngatiapa  woman  of  rank  named  Pikinga,  whom  he  had 
made  his  slave-wife.  When  her  brothers  heard  of  the 


arrival  of  Ngatitoa  at  Wanganui,  they,  with  a  party 
numbering  altogether  twenty  men,  came  to  meet  her, 
and  accompanied  Ngatitoa  as  far  as  the  Eangitikei  Eiver, 
for,  as  the  weather  continued  extremely  fine,  Te 
Eauparaha  thought  it  desirable  to  push  the  advance 
as  rapidly  as  possible. 

On  arriving  at  the  mouth  of  the  Eangitikei  the  people 
rested  for  some  days,  those  in  the  canoes  landing  for 
that  purpose.  During  this  rest,  armed  parties  were  sent 
inland  in  various  directions,  for  the  purpose  of  capturing 
any  stray  people  whom  they  could  find,  in  order  that 
they  might  be  killed  and  eaten  ;  but  these  parties  found 
the  country  nearly  deserted,  the  remnant  of  the 
original  tribes  having  taken  refuge  in  the  fastnesses  of 
the  interior. 

Te  Eauparaha  then  pushed  on  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Manawatu,  where  he  and  his  people  again  halted,  parties 
here  also  going  in  search  of  Eangitane,  with  the  same 
intentions  with  which  they  had  previously  sought  the 
Ngatiapa,  and  with  very  much  the  same  result.  Their 
next  stage  was  Ohau,  where  Ngatitoa  settled  until  after 
they  had  taken  Kapiti,  as  will  be  mentioned  in  the 
sequel.  During  this  time  the  Muaupoko  occupied  the 
country  inland  of  Ohau  and  stretching  to  the  Manawatu 
Eiver,  having  a  pa  on  Lake  Horowhenua,  and  on  the 
banks  of  Lake  Papaitanga,  which  is  close  to  it. 

Shortly  after  Te  Eauparaha  had  settled  at  Ohau  two 
of  the  chiefs  of  Muaupoko  visited  him,  and  offered,  if  he 
would  come  over  to  their  pa  at  Papaitanga,  to  make  him  a 
present  of  several  large  canoes.  He  was  extremely 
delighted  at  this  offer,  and  at  once  consented  to  go. 
Eangihaeata  however,  endeavoured  to  dissuade  him, 
saying,  "  Eaha,  I  have  had  a  presentiment  that  you 


will  be  murdered  by  Muaupoko,"  but  Te  Rauparaha 
laughed  at  his  fears ;  and,  attracted  by  the  prospect  of 
obtaining  the  canoes  --  which  had  been  glowingly 
described  to  him  by  the  two  chiefs — would  not  listen  to 
any  suggestions  against  the  proposed  visit.  He  even 
refused  to  take  any  large  force  wilih  him,  confining 
himself  to  a  few  men,  and  to  some  of  his  own  children. 

It  appears,  however,  that  a  plot  had  been  laid  between 
Turoa  and  Paetahi  (father -of  Mete  Kingi,  afterwards  one 
of  the  Maori  members  of  the  Assembly),  chiefs  of  the 
Wanganui  tribes,  and  the  leading  chiefs  of  the  Muaupoko, 
to  murder  Te  Rauparaha,  and  the  invitation  to  Papaitanga, 
with  the  offer  of  the  canoes,  was  only  a  step  in  the  plot 
for  that  purpose.  It  is  quite  clear  that  he  apprehended 
no  danger,  and  that  he  fell  into  the  trap  laid  for  him  with 
wonderful  facility. 

It  was  evening  when  he  and  his  companions  arrived  at 
the  pa,  where  they  were  received  by  Toheriri,  at  whose 
house  Te  Rauparaha  was  to  sleep.  His  people  were  all 
accommodated  in  different  parts  of  the  pa,  Te  Rauparaha 
alone  remaining  with  Toheriri.  The  murder  was  to  be 
committed  at  night  by  a  war  party  from  Horowhenua, 
and  when  Toheriri  believed  that  his  guest  was  fast 
asleep,  he  rose  and  went  out,  intending  to  inform  the 
war  party  that  Te  Rauparaha  was  asleep  in  his  house. 
His  movements,  however,  aroused  Te  Rauparaha,  who  at 
once  suspected  some  foul  design,  a  suspicion  which  was 
soon  converted  into  certainty  by  the  cries  of  some  of  his 
people  at  the  commencement  of  the  bloody  work.  He 
then  escaped  from  the  house,  and,  being  entirely 
unarmed,  fled  towards  Ohau,  which  he  succeeded  in 
reaching,  but  quite  naked. 

104        THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OP   TE    RAUPARAHA 

During  the  attack  Eangihoungariri,  who,  it  will  be 
remembered,  distinguished  himself  when  Te  Eauparaha's 
party  were  attacked  by  Ngatimaniapoto,  near  the  River 
Mokau,  had  succeeded  in  getting  well  away,  but  hearing 
Hira's  sister  calling  out  to  him  that  she  would  be  killed, 
at  once  returned  to  her  aid,  but  was  soon  overwhelmed 
by  numbers  and  slain,  Te  Poa,  Hira's  husband,  having 
been  killed  previously.  Hira,  and  a  girl  named  Hononga, 
were  not  killed,  but  were  carried  off  to  Euamahunga,  in 
the  Wairarapa,  where  the  former  afterwards  married 
Taika,  a  distant  relation  of  Te  Eauparaha.  These  two 
girls  were  the  daughters  of  that  Marore  whom  I 
mentioned  in  a  former  chapter  as  having  been  his  boy 

This  treacherous  murder  provoked  the  wrath  of 
Ngatitoa,  who,  from  that  time,  proceeded  to  destroy 
Muaupoko  without  mercy.  Toheriri  was  taken  prisoner, 
and  afterwards  hung  and  eaten,  undergoing  dreadful 
tortures.  Before  this  event  Muaupoko  were  a  somewhat 
powerful  tribe,  but  their  power  was  utterly  broken 
by  the  Ngatitoa  and  their  allies,  in  revenge  for  the 
attempted  murder  of  their  great  chief. 

.After  this  escape  Te  Eauparaha  settled  in  Ohau,  and 
occupied  the  main  land  as  far  as  Otaki,  his  war  parties 
constantly  hunting  the  people  at  Earigitikei,  Manawatu, 
and  Horowhenua;  but  a  remnant  of  these  tribes  still 
held  Kapiti,  notwithstanding  several  attempts  to  take 
possession  of  it. 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OF   TE    RAUPARAHA        105 



Amongst  the  chiefs  who  accompanied  Te  Eauparaha  in 
the  migration,  was  his  uncle,  Te  Pehi  Kupe,  who,  by 
virtue  of  his  seniority  of  age  and  rank,  was  undoubtedly 
entitled  to  the  leadership  of  the  tribe;  but,  although  not 
deficient  in  talent,  and  admittedly  a  great  warrior,  he  was 
inferior  to  his  nephew  in  those  special  qualifications,  which 
had  enabled  the  latter  to  acquire  the  power  he  held  over 
bis  own  tribe,  and  the  influence  he  exercised  in  the 
councils  of  the  Ngatiawa  and  Ngatiraukawa.  It  has, 
however,  been  asserted  that  there  are  grounds  for 
believing  that  Te  Eauparaha  was  somewhat  jealous  of 
Te  Pehi,  and  that  dreading  the  possibility  of  an  attempt 
on  the  part  of  the  latter  to  assume  the  leadership  of  the 
tribe  in  virtue  of  his  higher  social  position,  he  would  not 
unwillingly  have  sacrified  him.  Indeed,  it  is  said,  that 
the  taking  of  Kapiti  was  primarily  due  to  a  treacherous 
act  on  his  part,  committed  for  the  express  purpose  of 
involving  Te  Pehi,  and  a  number  of  other  members  of 
the  tribe,  in  destruction ;  but  it  is  difficult  to  suppose 
that  Te  Eauparaha  could  have  maintained  his  high 
position  if  this  charge,  and  others  of  a  similar  nature, 
were  in  any  degree  well  founded.  My  own  impression  is 
that  the  whole  affair  was  planned  for  the  express  purpose 

106        THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OF    TE    RAUPARAHA 

of  throwing  the  defenders  of  Kapiti  off  their  guard,  and 
so  of  securing  a  conquest  which  had.  already  been 
several  times  attempted  in  vain,  but  which  he  felt  to  be 
absolutely  necessary  for  the  success  of  his  ultimate 

It  appears  that  one  day  he  started  with  a  large  force  of 
Ngatitoa  and  Ngatiawa  for  Horowhenua,  for  the  avowed 
purpose  of  harassing  the  remnant  of  Muaupoko  and 
Rangitane  who  still  wandered  about  that  district,  and 
that  before  dawn  of  the  morning  after  his  departure 
(which  had  been  made  known  on  the  previous  day  to  the 
people  on  the  Island  through  their  own  spies),  Te  Pehi, 
and  his  own  immediate  followers,  crossed  the  Strait  and 
attacked  them.  Thrown  off  their  guard  by  the  knowledge 
of  Te  Rauparaha's  absence  with  the  bulk  of  the  warriors, 
they  had  neglected  their  ordinary  precautions  against 
surprise,  and  were  easily  defeated,  many  being  slain, 
although  the  greater  number  escaped  in  their  canoes  to 
the  main  land,  and  found  refuge  in  the  forests  and 
swamps  of  the  Manawatu.  On  the  return  of  Te 
Rauparaha's  war  party,  he  at  once  passed  over  to 
Kapiti,  where  he  usually  resided  from  that  time  till  his 

Shortly  after  the  taking  of  Kapiti,  Wi  Kingi  and  the 
great  body  of  the  Ngatiawa  returned  to  the  Waitara,  only 
twenty  warriors  remaining  with  the  Ngatitoa.  Thus 
weakened,  they  were  ultimately  compelled,  by  events 
which  I  am  about  to  relate,  to  abandon  their  settlements 
on  the  main  land,  and  to  remove  to  Kapiti,  where  they 
formed  and  occupied  three  large  pas,  one  named 
Wharekohu,  at  the  southern  end  of  the  island  ;  another 
named  Rangatira,  near  the  northern  end ;  and  one 
named  Taepiro,  between  the  other  two,  Te  Rauparaha 

108        THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

and  Eangihaeata,  with  the  main  body  of  the  people, 
residing  in  the  latter. 

Before  relating  the  events  which  took  place  after  the 
departure  of  the  Ngatiawa,  it  is  necessary  that  I  should 
call  attention  to  many  affairs  of  importance  which 
occurred  between  that  event  and  the  first  settlement  of 
the  Ngatitoa  at  Ohau.  It  will  be  remembered  that  at 
the  close  of  the  last  chapter  I  mentioned  the  attempt 
made  by  the  Muaupoko  to  murder  Te  Eauparaha,  near 
Lake  Papaitanga,  and  the  determination  of  himself  and 
his  tribe  to  lose  no  opportunity  of  taking  vengeance  for 
the  slaughter  which  had  taken  place  on  that  occasion. 

At  the  time  of  this  occurrence,  the  Muaupoko  were 
still  numerous  and  comparatively  powerful,  having 
suffered  much  less  during  the  previous  incursions  of  the 
Ngapuhi  and  Waikatos,  than  the  neighbouring  tribes ; 
but  they  were,  nevertheless,  no  match  for  the  better 
armed  and  more  warlike  Ngatitoa,  and  therefore  rarely 
met  them  in  the  open  field,  relying  for  security  rather 
upon  the  inaccessibility  of  their  fortresses  and  upon  their 
intimate  knowledge  of  the  fastnesses  of  the  Manawatu 
district,  than  upon  their  prowess  in  the  field.  They  then 
occupied  a  number  of  pas  in  the  country  around  Lakes 
Papaitanga  and  Horowhenua,  as  well  as  several  which 
they  had  erected  upon  artificial  islands  in  the  latter 
lake,  in  the  manner  so  interestingly  described  by 
Taylor,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  Wellington 
Philosophical  Society.  Now,  it  appears,  that  in 
pursuance  of  his  intention  to  destroy  these  people, 
Te.  Eauparaha  constantly  detailed  war  parties  to  attack 
them,  as  well  as  to  harass  the  unfortunate  remnant  of 
the  Eangitane  who  still  lurked  in  the  country  to  the 
northward  of  their  territory. 


Finding  themselves  unable  to  check  these  attacks,  the 
Muaupoko  took  refuge  in  the'  lake  pas,  which  the 
Ngatitoa,  however  determined  to  attack.  Their  first 
attempt  was  on  that  named  Waipata,  and,  having  no 
canoes,  they  swam  out  to  it,  and  succeeded  in  taking  it, 
slaughtering  many  of  the  defenders,  though  the  greater 
number  escaped  in  their  canoes  to  a  larger  pa  on  the  same 
lake,  named  Wai-kie-kie.  This  pa  was  occupied  in  such 
force  by  the  enemy,  that  the  party  which  had  taken 
Waipata  felt  themselves  too  weak  to  assault  it,  and, 
therefore,  returned  to  Ohau  for  reinforcements.  Having 
obtained  the  requisite  assistance,  they  again  proceeded  to 
Horowhenua,  and  attacked  Wai-kie-kie,  using  a  number 
of  canoes,  which  they  had  taken  at  Waipata,  for  the 
purpose  of  crossing  the  lake.  After  a  desperate,  but 
vain  resistance,  they  took  the  pa,  slaughtering  nearly  200 
of  the  inhabitants,  including  women  and  children,  the 
remainder  escaping  in  their  canoes,  and  making  their 
way,  by  inland  paths,  in  the  direction  of  Paikakariki, 
where  they  ultimately  settled. 

In  the  course  of  these  several  attacks,  a  number  of  the 
leading  Muaupoko  chiefs  were  taken  prisoners,  all  of 
whom,  except  Eatu,  who  became  the  slave  of  Te  Pehi, 
were  killed,  and  their  bodies,  as  well  as  those  of  the 
people  slain  in  the  assaults,  duly  devoured.  It  is  matter 
of  note  that,  notwithstanding  the  occasional  murder  of 
men  of  the  Ngatiapa  who  happened  to  be  found  on  the 
south  side  of  the  Rangitikei  River  by  the  Ngatitoa  and 
Ngatiawa  war  parties,  Te  Rauparaha  had,  up  to  this  time, 
preserved  friendly  relations  with  that  tribe,  some  of 
whom  occasionally  fought  in  his  ranks  ;  this  was  chiefly 
owing  to  the  connection  of  Rangihaeata  with  Pikinga, 
but  events  which  occurred  shortly  after  the  expulsion  of 

110        THE    STIRRING    TIMES    OF    TE    RAUPARAHA 

the  Muaupoko  from  the  Horowhenua  country,  led  to  a 
rupture  of  this  friendship  and  to  the  ultimate  complete 
subjugation  of  the  Ngatiapa. 

It  was  after  the  defeat  of  the  former  at  Wai-kie-kie 
that  the  Ngatiawa  returned  to  Waitara,  but  although,  as 
I  have  before  observed,  their  departure  greatly  weakened 
Te  Eauparaha,  he  and  his  people  still  maintained  their 
settlements  on  the  mainland,  and  continued  their  raids 
against  the  remnants  of  the  defeated  tribes.  Amongst 
the  expeditions  thus  undertaken  one,  in  which  a  larger 
force  than  usual  was  engaged,  was  directed  against  a  pa 
at  Paikakariki,  occupied  by  the  Muaupoko  who  had  fled 
from  Wai-kie-kie.  It  was  taken  after  an  obstinate 
struggle,  in  which  many  of  the  occupants  were  slain,  the 
conquerors  remaining  in  possession  for  nearly  two  months 
for  the  purpose  of  consuming  their  bodies  and  the  stores 
of  provisions  they  found  in  the  pa. 

They  were  there  suddenly  attacked  by  the  Nga- 
tikahungunu  from  Wanganuiatera  and  the  surrounding 
country,  and  driven  upon  Waikanae  with  considerable 
loss.  This  event,  coupled  with  the  threatening  attitude 
assumed  by  that  powerful  tribe,  and  the  fact  that  the 
remnants  of  the  Muaupoko,  Eangitane,  and  Ngatiapa, 
were  again  collecting  in  the  vicinity  of  their  former 
settlements,  determined  Te  Rauparaha  to  abandon  the 
mainland,  and  to  withdraw  the  whole  of  his  people  to 
Kapiti  until  he  could  obtain  the  assistance  (which  he 
«till  confidently  expected)  of  his  kindred  at  Taupo  and 

He  had  no  sooner  retired  to  Kapiti,  than  the  Eangitane 
erected  a  large  pa  at  Hotuiti,  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Manawatu,  within  the  tract  subsequently  known  as  the 
Awahou  Block,  where  they  collected  in  force,  and  were 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OF   TE    RAUPARAHA        111 

joined  by  three  Ngatiapa  chiefs  of  note.  Te  Rauparaha 
hearing  of  this,  determined  to  attack  them,  and  he  and 
Rangihaeata  marched  to  Hotuiti  with  a  well  appointed 
tana,  accompanied  by  Pikinga,  who,  on  the  arrival  of  the 
party  before  the  pa,  was  sent  into  it  to  direct  the 
Ngatiapa  chiefs  to  retire  to  the  district  occupied  by  that 
tribe  on  the  north  side  of  the  Rangitikei  river.  This 
they  declined  to  do,  and  Te  Rauparaha  then  sent 
messengers  to  the  Rangitane  offering  peace,  and  desiring 
that  their  chiefs  should  be  sent  to  his  camp  to  settle  the 

Tongariro  from  Lake  Taupo. 

terms.  Being  advised  by  the  Ngatiapa  chiefs  to  accept 
the  offer,  they  sent  their  own  head  men  to  Te  Rauparaha's 
quarters,  where  they  were  at  once  ruthlessly  slain,  and 
whilst  the  people  in  the  pa,  ignorant  of  this  slaughter, 
and  believing  hostilities  were  suspended,  were  entirely  off 
their  guard,  it  was  rushed  by  the  Ngatitoa,  and  taken 
after  a  very  feeble  resistance,  the  greater  number  of  the 
unfortunate  people  and  their  families,  as  well  as  the  three 
Ngatiapa  chiefs,  being  slaughtered  and  devoured,  such 

112        THE    STIRRING    TIMES   OP    TE    RAUPARAHA 

prisoners  as  were  taken  being  removed  to  Waikanae  in 
order  to  undergo  the  same  fate. 

After  this  treacherous  affair,  Te  Rauparaha  and  his 
force  returned  to  Waikanae,  where  they  indulged  in 
feasting  and  rejoicing,  little  dreaming  that  any  attempt 
would  be  made  to  attack  them.  It  appears,  however, 
that  the  Ngatiapa  at  Eangitikei,  incensed  at  the  slaughter 
of  their  three  chiefs,  had  determined  to  revenge  their 
loss,  and  for  this  purpose  had  collected  a  considerable 
war  party,  which  was  readily  joined  by  the  refugees  from 
Hotuiti  and  by  a  number  of  Muaupoko  from  Horowhenua. 
Led  by  Te  Hakeke,  they  fell  upon  the  Ngatitoa  during 
the  night,  killing  upwards  of  sixty  of  them,  including 
many  women  and  children,  amongst  the  latter  being  the 
four  daughters  of  Te  Pehi.  At  the  commencement  of 
the  attack,  a  canoe  was  despatched  to  Kapiti  for 
reinforcements,  which  were  at  once  sent,  and,  upon  their 
arrival,  the  enemy  fled,  but  without  being  pursued.  In 
consequence  of  this  attack,  Te  Rauparaha  and 
Rangihaeata  became  (to  use  the  words  of  Matene  Te 
Whiwhi)  "  dark  in  their  hearts  in  regard  to  Ngatiapa," 
and  resolved  to  spare  no  efforts  to  destroy  them,  as  well 
as  the  remnants  of  Rangitane  and  Muaupoko. 

Te  Rauparaha  had,  of  course,  become  aware  of  the 
defeat  of  Whatanui  and  the  Ngatiraukawa  in  their 
attempt  to  reach  Kapiti  by  the  East  Coast,  but 
immediately  after  the  departure  of  the  Ngatiawa  he  had 
sent  emissaries  to  Taupo,  in  order  to  urge  upon  the  chiefs 
to  join  him  in  the  occupation  of  the  country  he  had 
conquered.  In  the  meantime,  however,  a  storm  was 
brewing  which  threatened  utterly  to  destroy  him  and 
his  people.  Ratu,  the  Muaupoko  chief  who  had  been 
enslaved  by  Te  Pehi,  escaped  from  Kapiti  and  fled  to  the 


Middle  Island.  Being  anxious  to  avenge  the  destruction 
of  his  tribe,  he  proceeded  to  organize  an  alliance  between 
the  tribes  occupying  the  southern  shores  of  Cook  Strait 
and  those  which  held  the  country  from  Patea  to 
Eangitikei,  on  the  north,  and  the  Ngatikahungunu  at 
Wanganuiatera  and  Wairarapa,  on  the  south,  for  the 
purpose  of  attacking  Te  Eauparaha  with  a  force,  which, 
in  point  of  numbers,  at  least,  should  be  irresistible. 

In  the  formation  of  the  desired  alliance  he  was 
completely  successful,  and  about  the  end  of  the  fourth 
year  after  the  first  arrival  of  the  Ngatitoa,  nearly  2,000 
warriors  assembled  between  Otaki  and  Waikanae,  consist- 
ing of  Ngarauru,  from  Waitotara ;  the  people  of  Patea, 
Wanganui,  Wangaehu,  Turakina,  and  Kangitikei,  the 
Eangitane  of  Manawatu,  and  the  Ngatikahungunu, 
Ngatiapa,  Ngatitumatakokiri,  Eangitane,  and  Ngatihuia, 
from  the  Middle  Island.  They  were  provided  with 
ample  means  of  transport,  "  the  sea  on  the  occasion  of 
their  attack,"  to  use  the  words  of  my  informant,  who 
was  present  on  the  occasion,  being  covered  with 
canoes,  one  wing  reaching  Kapiti  from  Otaki,  whilst  the 
other  started  almost  simultaneously  from  Waikanae." 
The  landing  of  the  warriors  composing  the  right  wing 
was  effected  about  four  in  the  morning,  but  the  alarm 
having  already  been  given  by  the  chief  Nopera,  who  had 
discovered  and  notified  their  approach,  the  invaders  were 
at  once  attacked  by  the  Ngatitoa,  of  Eangitira,  with 
great  fury,  whilst  messengers  were  at  the  same  time 
despatched  to  Taepiri,  where  Te  Eauparaha  lay  with  the 
bulk  of  his  people,  to  inform  him  of  the  invasion. 
Before  he  could  reach  the  scene  of  the  conflict,  however, 
the  enemy  had  succeeded  in  pushing  the  Ngatitoa 
towards  Waiorua,  at  the  northern  end  of  the  Island. 


Pokaitara,  who  was  in  command,  being  desirous  of 
gaining  time  in  order  to  admit  of  the  arrival  of  reinforce- 
ments, proposed  a  truce  to  the  enemy,  which  was 
granted  by  Rangimairehau,  a  Ngatiapa  chief,  by  whom 
they  were  led,  who  hoped,  on  his  side,  during  the  truce, 
to  be  able  to  land  the  rest  of  his  forces,  and  then 
effectually  to  crush  the  Ngatitoa. 

Shortly  after  the  truce  had  been  agreed  to,  Te 
Rauparaha  and  his  warriors  reached  the  scene  of  action, 
and  at  once  renewed  the  battle  with  the  utmost  vigour ; 
and,  after  a  long  and  sanguinary  conflict,  completely 
defeated  the  invaders,  with  tremendous  slaughter ;  not 
less  than  170  dead  bodies  being  left  on  the  beach,  whilst 
numbers  were  drowned  in  attempting  to  reach  the 
canoes  that  were  still  at  sea.  The  remainder  of  the 
invading  force  made  their  way,  with  all  speed,  to 
Waikanae  and  other  points  of  the  coast,  where  many  of 
them  landed,  abandoning  their  canoes  to  the  Ngatitoa, 
who  had  commenced  an  immediate  pursuit. 

After  the  battle  Te  Eauparaha  composed  and  sang  a 
"  song  of  triumph,"  the  words  of  which  I  regret  that  I 
have  not  been  able  to  obtain.  The  result  was  in  every 
way  advantageous  to  his  people,  for  no  further  attempt 
was  ever  made  to  dislodge  them,  whilst  they,  on  the 
other  hand,  lost  no  opportunity  of  strengthening  their 
position  and  of  wreaking  vengeance  on  the  Ngatiapa, 
Eangitane,  and  Muaupoko,  the  remnant  of  whom  they 
ultimately  reduced  to  the  condition  of  the  merest  tribu- 
taries, many  of  the  leading  chiefs,  including  Te  Hakeke, 
becoming  slaves. 

It  would  be  useless  for  me  to  give  anything  like  a 
detailed  account  of  the  incursions  of  the  Ngatitoa  into 
the  country  on  the  mainland,  often  extending  as  far  as 


Turakina,  in  which  numbers  of  the  original  inhabitants 
were  killed  and  eaten,  or  reduced  to  slavery  ;  but  it  is 
perfectly  clear  that  their  power  was  completely  broken, 
and  that  after  Waiorua,  the  Ngatitoa  and  their  allies 
found  no  enemy  capable  of  checking  their  movements. 

Maori  Swings. 

The  news  of  the  battle  having  reached  Taranaki,  with 
rumours  of  Te  Eauparaha's  astounding  success,  Te 
Puaha,  with  a  detachment  of  Ngatiawa,  came  down  to 
Kapiti  in  order  to  learn  the  truth  of  the  matter,  and 


having  ascertained  how  completely  Te  Eauparaha  had 
defeated  his  enemies,  he  returned  to  Taranaki  for  the 
purpose  of  bringing  down  a  number  of  his  people  to  join 
the  Ngatitoa  in  their  settlement  of  the  country,  as  well  as 
to  take  part  in  the  prosecution  of  Te  Eauparaha's  further 
designs.  Accordingly,  he  shortly  afterwards  brought 
with  him,  from  Taranaki,  a  considerable  number  of 
fighting  men,  with  their  families,  consisting  partly  of 
Ngatiawa  proper,  partly  of  Ngatihinetuhi,  and  partly  of 
Ngatiwhakatere,  being  members  of  a  kapu  of  Ngatirau- 
kawa,  who  had  escaped  from  a  defeat  on  the  Wanganui 
Eiver,  and  had  incorporated  themselves  with  the 
Ngatiawa.  This  formed  an  important  accession  to  the 
force  under  Te  Eauparaha,  which  received  further 
additions  shortly  afterwards  from  Te  Ahu  Karamu,  a 
Ngatiraukawa  chief  of  high  rank,  who,  against  the  feeling 
of  his  people,  had  determined  to  join  his  great  Ngatitoa 

This  chief,  having  heard  from  Te  Eauparaha's  emissaries 
of  the  difficulties  in  which  he  was  likely  to  be  placed  by 
the  defection  of  the  Ngatiawa,  had  started  from  Taupo 
with  120  armed  men,  of  his  own  immediate  following, 
and  arrived  at  Kapiti  shortly  after  the  battle  of  Waiorua, 
and  then  took  part  in  many  of  the  raids  upon  the 
original  tribes  which  occurred  after  that  event.  After 
remaining  with  Te  Eauparaha  for  some  months  he 
returned  to  Taupo  with  part  of  his  followers,  where  he 
reported  the  improved  position  of  Ngatitoa,  and  urged 
his  own  section  of  the  tribe  to  join  them.  Finding  them 
still  unwilling  to  do  so,  and  being  determined  to  effect 
his  object,  he  ordered  the  whole  of  their  houses  and 
stores  to  be  burned  down,  declaring  it  to  be  the  will  of 
the  atua  or  spirit,  angry  at  their  refusal  to  obey  the 


words  of  their  chief.  This  being  done  the  people  gave 
way,  and  he  took  the  necessary  measures  for  the 

In  the  meantime  Whatanui  and  Te  Heuheu  had  also 
determined  to  visit  Te  Kauparaha,  in  order  to  inspect 
the  country  he  had  conquered ;  the  former  chieftain 
intending,  if  it  met  his  approval,  to  carry  out  his  original 
design  of  joining  the  Ngatitoa  in  its  occupation.  In 
pursuance  of  this  determination  they,  with  a  strong 
force  of  their  own  warriors,  joined  Te  Ahu  Karamu's 
party,  the  whole  travelling  down  the  Eangitikei  Kiver 
along  the  route  followed  by  Te  Ahu  on  his  previous 
journey.  During  this  journey  they  attacked  and  killed 
any  of  the  original  inhabitants  whom  they  happened  to 
fall  in  with.  This  migration  is  known  amongst  the 
Ngatiraukawa  as  the  heke  whirinui,  owing  to  the  fact 
that  the  whiri,  or  plaited  collars  of  their  mats,  were 
made  very  large  for  the  journey.  Amongst  the  special 
events  which  occurred  on  the  march  was  the  capture  of 
a  Ngatiapa  woman  and  two  children,  on  the  south  side 
of  the  Bangitikei.  The  unfortunate  children  were  sacri- 
ficed during  the  performance  of  a  solemn  religious  rite ; 
and  the  woman,  though  in  the  first  instance  saved  by 
Te  Heuheu,  who  wished  to  keep  her  as  a  slave,  was 
killed  and  eaten  by  Tangaru,  one  of  the  Ngatiraukawa 
leaders.  Shortly  after  this  Te  Whiro,  one  of  the  greatest 
of  the  Ngatiapa  chiefs,  with  two  women,  were  taken 
prisoners,  and  the  former  was  put  to  death  with  great 
ceremony  and  cruelty,  as  utu  for  the  loss  of  some  of  Te 
Heuheu' s  people  who  had  been  killed  by  the  Ngatiapa 
long  before ;  but  the  women  were  spared. 

On  the  arrival  of  this  heke  at  Kapiti,  Te  Heuheu  and 
Whatanui  held  a  long  conference  with  the  Ngatitoa 


chieftains,  and  Whatanui  was  at  last  persuaded  to  bring 
down  his  people.  For  this  purpose  he  and  Te  Heuheu 
returned  to  Taupo,  some  of  the  party  passing  across  the 
Manawatu  Block,  so  as  to  strike  the  Eangitikei  Eiver 
inland,  whilst  the  others  travelled  along  the  beach  to  the 
mouth  of  that  river,  intending  to  join  the  inland  party 
some  distance  up.  The  inland  party  rested  at  Eanga- 
taua,  where  a  female  relative  of  Te  Heuheu,  named 
Keremai,  famed  for  her  extreme  beauty,  died  of  wounds 
inflicted  upon  her  during  the  journey  by  a  stray  band  of 
Ngatiapa.  A  great  tangi  was  held  over  her  remains,  and 
Te  Heuheu  caused  her  head  to  be  preserved,  he  himself 
calcining  her  brains  and  strewing  the  ashes  over  the 
land,  which  he  declared  to  be  for  ever  tapu.  His  people 
were  joined  by  the  party  from  the  beach  road  at  the 
junction  of  the  Waituna  with  the  Eangitikei,  where  the 
chief  was  presented  with  three  Ngatiapa  prisoners,  who 
had  been  taken  during  the  ascent  of  the  river.  These 
were  immediately  sacrificed  to  the  manes  of  Keremai, 
after  which  the  whole  body  returned  with  all  speed  to 

Before  the  return  of  Whatanui  and  his  people  to 
Kapiti,  that  place  had  been  visited  by  some  European 
whale  ships,  and  Te  Eauparaha  at  once  traded  with 
them  for  guns  and  ammunition,  giving  in  exchange 
dressed  flax  and  various  kinds  of  fresh  provisions, 
including  potatoes.  I  may  mention  that  until  the  arrival 
of  the  Ngatitoa  the  potato  had  been  unknown  in  the 
Manawatu  district,  but  at  the  time  I  now  speak  of,  it 
was  extensively  cultivated  between  that  place  and 
Taranaki,  and  formed  one  of  the  staple  articles  of  food 
of  the  natives. 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF    TE   RAUPARAHA        119 

He  had  no  sooner  obtained  a  supply  of  fire-arms,  and 
ammunition  than  he  resolved  to  carry  out  his  long- 
conceived  intention  of  invading  the  Middle  Island,  a 
design  in  which  he  was  greatly  aided  by  the  capture  of 
the  war  canoes  which  had  been  abandoned  by  the  allied 
forces  after  the  battle  of  Waiorua ;  but,  although  he  at 
once  made  preparations  for  carrying  out  his  project,  he 
postponed  its  actual  execution  till  after  the  return  of 

Shortly  before  the  visit  of  the  ships  with  which  Te 
Eauparaha  had  carried  on  his  trade,  Te  Pehi,  observing 
one  passing  through  Cook  Strait,  went  out  to  her  in  a 
canoe,  and,  having  managed  to  conceal  himself  until  the 
canoe  had  left  her,  he  succeeded  ultimately  in  reaching 
England,  his  design  being,  like  that  of  E.  Hongi,  to 
obtain  a  supply  of  fire-arms  and  ammunition.  His  visit 
to  England  where  he  was  known  under  the  name  of 
Tupai  Cupa,  evidently  a  corruption  of  Te  Pehi  Kupe,  is 
described  in  the  volume  for  1830  of  "  The  Library  of 
Entertaining  Knowledge."  We  are  enabled  by  means  of 
this  incident  to  fix  the  dates  of  some  of  the  principal 
events  in  Te  Rauparaha's  career,  for  we  know  that  it 
was  in  1826  that  Te  Pehi  managed  to  secrete  himself  on 
board  the  vessel  above  referred  to. 

Te  Eauparaha's  immediate  designs  were  in  the  mean- 
time somewhat  interfered  with  by  a  rupture  between  a 
section  of  his  people  and  the  Ngatitama,  under  Puaha, 
some  fighting  taking  place,  which  resulted  in  loss  to  both 
sides ;  but  he  at  once  peremptorily  ordered  peace  to  be 
made,  an  order  which  was  obeyed  by  both  sides.  It 
seems  that  this  dispute  arose  out  of  the  occupation  of 
some  of  the  conquered  land,  which  was  claimed  by 
both  parties,  and  Waitohi,  a  sister  of  Te  Eauparaha, 


foreseeing  that  constant  disputes  were  likely  to  arise 
from  the  same  cause,  more  especially  when  their 
numbers  were  increased  by  the  expected  arrival  of  the 
main  body  of  the  Ngatiraukawa,  unless  there  was  some 
definite  arrangement  as  to  the  division  of  the  country 
between  them,  suggested  to  Te  Rauparaha  that  the 
Ngatiawa  should  all  remove  to  Waikanae,  and  should 
occupy  the  land  to  the  south  of  the  Kukutawaki  stream, 
whilst  the.  country  from  the  north  bank  of  that  stream  as 
far  as  the  Wangaehu  should  be  given  up  to  the  Ngatirau- 

This  suggestion  was  adopted  by  all  parties,  and  it  was 
determined  that  the  Ngatiraukawa,  already  with  Te 
Eauparaha,  should  at  once  proceed  to  occupy  Ohau,  then 
in  the  possession  of  the  Ngatiawa.  Having  been 
assembled  for  this  purpose  they  were  escorted  to  their 
new  location  by  Te  Eauparaha  and  all  the  principal 
chiefs  of  Ngatitoa,  travelling  along  the  beach.  On  their 
way  up  they  were  feasted  by  Ngatirahira  (a  hapu  of 
Ngatiawa)  upon  the  flesh  of  black-fish,  a  large  school  of 
which  had  been  driven  ashore  at  low  water,  where  the 
natives  ingeniously  tethered  them  by  their  tails  with 
strong  flax  ropes,  killing  them  as  they  were  wanted  for 
food.  The  Ngatiraukawa  having  been  put  into  quiet 
possession  of  the  houses  and  cultivations  of  the  Ngatiawa, 
the  latter  removed  to  Waikanae,  which  continued  for 
some  time  afterwards  to  be  their  principal  settlement. 
The  wisdom  of  Waitohi's  suggestion  above  referred  to  is 
apparent  from  the  fact  that  no  further  land  disputes 
occurred  between  the  several  tribes  until  the  fighting  at 
Horowhenua  many  years  afterwards,  as  will  be  related 
in  the  sequel. 


Between  this  event  and  the  date  of  Whatanui's  return 
to  Kapiti  with  the  main  body  of  his  people,  a  heke 
composed  of  140  fighting  men  with  their  families — called 
the  heke  kariritahi,  from  the  circumstance  that  the 
warriors  armed  with  muskets,  had  enlarged  the  touch- 
holes  so  as  to  be  enabled  (shrewd  fellows  as  they  were) 
to  keep  up  a  more  rapid  fire  upon  an  enemy  by  saving 
the  trouble  of  priming — came  down  from  Maungatautari 
under  the  command  of  Taratoa.  Whatanui  accompanied 
this  heke  for  the  purpose  of  conferring  with  Te 
Rauparaha  on  matters  of  importance,  but  finding  that  the 
chief  was  absent,  he  at  once  returned  to  Taupo  in  order 
to  bring  down  his  people. 

The  constant  arrival  of  these  armed  bodies,  and  the 
manner  in  which  they  roamed  over  the  Manawatu  and 
Eangitikei  districts,  treating  the  remnant  of  the  Ngatiapa 
and  other  original  tribes  with  the  greatest  rigour,  induced 
the  latter  to  throw  themselves  upon  the  hospitality  of  the 
Ngatikahungunu  at  Wairarapa.  In  pursuance  of  this 
resolve,  some  300  of  them,  including  women  and  children, 
proceeded  thither,  but  in  consequence  of  a  murder, 
followed  by  an  act  of  cannibalism,  which  had  been 
committed  by  some  of  the  Eangitane  upon  a  Ngatika- 
hungunu man  not  long  before,  that  tribe  not  only  refused 
to  receive  the  refugees,  but  attacked  and  drove  them  back 
with  slaughter.  The  Ngatiapa  then  formally  placed 
themselves  at  the  mercy  of  Eangihaeata,  whose  con- 
nection, so  frequently  alluded  to,  with  a  chief  of  their 
tribe  induced  him  to  treat  them  with  leniency,  and  they 
were  accordingly  permitted  to  live  in  peace,  but  in  a  state 
of  complete  subjection. 

The  remnant  of  the  Muaupoko,  in  like  manner,  sought 
the  protection  of  Tuauaine,  a  chief  of  the  Ngatiawa,  who 


agreed  to  defend  them  against  the  long  standing  wrath  of 
Te  Rauparaha,  but,  as  it  appears,  in  vain  ;  for  it  seems 
that  having  been  informed  by  some  of  the  Ngatiraukawa 
that  these  people  were  again  settling  at  Papaitangi  and 
Horowhenua,  Te  Rauparaha  and  Rangihaeata,  with  a  war 
party  of  Ngatitoa  and  Ngatiraukawa,  proceeded  thither 
and  attacked  them,  killing  many  and  taking  a  number  of 
others  prisoners,  amongst  whom  was  Toheriri,  their 
chief.  Toheriri's  wife  composed  a  lament  on  the  occasion 
of  the  death  of  her  husband,  which  is  still  recited  amongst 
the  Maoris.  In  this  song  she  reflected  on  the  broken 
promise  of  Tuauaine,  who,  though  very  sad  at  this 
slaughter,  was  entirely  unable  to  prevent  it.  I  merely 
mention  this  incident  here,  in  order  to  show  that  lapse  of 
time  had  in  no  degree  weakened  the  revengeful  feelings 
of  Te  Rauparaha,  and  that  he  considered  the  manes  of  his 
murdered  children  insufficiently  appeased  by  the 
slaughter  of  the  hundreds  whom  he  had  already 

In  about  a  year  after  the  visit  of  Whatanui  with  Te 
Heuheu  the  former  returned  to  Kapiti  with  the  main 
body  of  his  tribe,  this  migration  being  known  as  the  heke 
mairaro,  or  "  heke  from  below,"  the  north  point  being 
always  treated  by  the  Maoris  as  downward.  From  that 
time  forth  for  some  years,  parties  of  the  same  tribe 
constantly  recruited  their  countrymen  in  their  settle- 
ments on  the  Manawatu,  gradually  extending  their 
occupation  over  the  whole  country  between  Otaki  and 
Rangitikei,  although  their  chief  stations  were  in  the 
Horowhenua  and  Ohau  districts  :  whilst  the  Ngatiapa, 
under  the  protection  of  Rangihaeata  and  Taratoa, 
occupied  some  country  on  the  north  of  the  Rangitikei, 
yielding  a  tribute  to  both  of  these  chiefs  as  a  condition  of 
their  being  left  in  peace. 



Not  long  after  the  arrival  of  Whatanui  with  the  heke 
mairaro,  Te  Eauparaha  put  in  execution  his  long 
meditated  project  of  invading  and  permanently  occupying 
the  northern  coasts  of  the  Middle  Island.  It  appears 
that  his  fame  as  a  warrior  had  reached  the  ears  of 
Eerewhaka,  a  great  chief  of  the  Ngaitahu,  whose 
principal  settlement  was  at  the  Kaikoura  Peninsula. 
This  chief  had  been  excessively  indignant  at  the  defeat  of 

The  Kaikoura  Mountains. 

the  allies  at  Waiorua,  and  on  hearing  of  the  song  of 
triumph,  chanted  by  Te  Eauparaha  on  that  occasion,  in 
which  the  latter  indicated  his  intention  of  attacking  and 
subduing  the  Ngaitahu,  he  had  declared  "  that  if  Te 
Eauparaha  dared  set  a  foot  in  his  country  he  would  rip 
his  belly  with  a  niho-manga,  or  shark's  tooth,"  a  curse 
which  was  reported  to  Te  Eauparaha  by  a  runaway 
slave,  and  which — his  memory  for  small  matters  being 


remarkably  tenacious — would  afford  him,  at  any  distance 
of  time,  ample  pretext  and  indeed  justification  for  attack- 
ing Eerewhaka  and  his  people. 

In  1828,  having  accumulated  a  considerable  quantity 
of  fire-arms  and  ammunition,  he  started  with  340  picked 
warriors,  comprising  Ngatitoa,  Ngatiawa,  Ngatitama,  and 
Ngatiraukawa,  under  Niho,  the  son  of  Te  Pehi,  Takerei, 
Te  Kanae,  Te  Koihua,  Te  Puoho,  and  other  chiefs  of 
note,  and  first  made  for  D'Urville  Island,  at  the  north- 
east of  Blind  Bay.  At  this  time  D'Urville  Island,  the 
Pelorus  and  Queen  Charlotte  Sounds,  the  Wairau  and 
the  Awatere,  were  all  occupied  by  a  numerous  section  of 
the  Eangitane  tribe,  which  had  settled  in  these  places 
after  destroying  the  Ngatimamoe  some  200  years  before. 
But  though  numerous,  and  in  that  sense  powerful,  so 
long  as  their  warfare  was  carried  on  with  the  ordinary 
New  Zealand  weapons,  they  were  no  match  for  the 
chosen  warriors  of  Te  Eauparaha,  more  particularly  when 
armed  with  the  more  deadly  European  weapons.  The 
consequence  was  that  they  wrere  everywhere  disastrously 
defeated,  hundreds  of  them  being  killed  and  devoured  on 
the  spot,  whilst  numbers  of  the  prisoners  were  taken 
to  Kapiti  to  undergo  the  same  fate,  the  wretched 
remnant  being  kept  in  abject  slavery  by  such  of  their 
conquerors  as  settled  in  the  newly  acquired  district. 

Whilst  Te  Eauparaha  was  engaged  in  these  operations 
Te  Pehi  returned  from  England,  and  at  once  joined  him 
with  a  considerable  number  of  followers.  Shortly  after 
this  the  main  force  divided,  a  sub-division  of  the  Ngatitoa 
named  the  Ngatirarua  hapu,  under  Niho  and  Takerei,  the 
Puketapu  and  Nutiwai  hapus  of  Ngatiawa,  under  Te 
Koihua,  and  the  Ngatitama,  under  Te  Puoho,  proceeding 
to  Blind  and  Massacre  Bays — whose  exploits  will  be 


hereafter  referred  to — whilst  Te  Eauparaha,  Te  Pehi,  and 
other  chiefs,  with  300  well  armed  men,  flushed  with 
victory,  and  grown  strong  upon  human  flesh,  left 
Eangitoto  for  the  Kaikoura  Peninsula,  in  order  to  afford 
to  Rerewhaka  the  opportunity  of  putting  his  long  made 

Te  Pehi. 

threat  into  execution.  But  the  Ngatitoa  chief  felt  sure 
of  a  comparatively  easy  victory,  for  notwithstanding  a 
great  numerical  superiority  on  the  part  of  the  enemy,  he 
knew  that  they  were  indifferently,  if  at  all,  supplied  with 
fire-arms,  whilst  the  great  bulk  of  his  own  men  were  well 
furnished  with  guns,  powder,  and  ball. 


It  will  be  observed  that,  in  accordance  with  the  well 
known  habit  of  the  New  Zealanders,  Te  Rauparaha  had 
never  forgotten  Rerewhaka's  curse,  and  he  felt  highly 
elated  at  the  prospect  of  a  revenge,  which  the  force  at  his 
command  rendered  almost  certain.  But  besides  this 
prospect  of  vengeance,  and  the  anticipated  additional 
gratification  of  devouring  the  bodies  of  the  slain,  he 
expected  to  acquire  large  quantities  of  greenstone 
weapons  and  ornaments,  in  which,  as  he  had  been 
informed  by  the  slave  who  had  reported  Rerewhaka's 
foolish  boast,  the  Ngaitahu  of  the  Kaikoura  and  the 
Amuri  were  especially  rich,  for  notwithstanding  the 
introduction  of  fire-arms  into  their  system  of  warfare, 
the  mere  pounamu,  or  greenstone  battle-axe,  and  other 
implements  of  war  manufactured  from  that  substance, 
was  then,  and  indeed  always  has  been,  held  in  great 
estimation  by  the  Maoris.  Te  Rauparaha,  therefore, 
longed  to  add  the  acquisition  of  such  treasures  to  the 
gratification  which  he  would  derive  from  wreaking 
vengeance  upon  the  Ngaitahu  chieftain,  for  the  insult 
under  which  he  had  so  long  suffered. 

As  my  readers  are  probably  aware,  the  greenstone  or 
nephrite,  from  which  the  more  valuable  of  the  weapons 
in  question  are  made,  is  found  exclusively  on  the  West 
Coast  of  the  Middle  Island,  and  it  appears  that  the 
Ngaitahu  of  Kaikoura  and  Amuri  especially,  had  long 
been  in  the  habit  of  sending  war  parties  across  the 
island,  for  the  purpose  of  killing  and  plundering  the 
inhabitants  of  the  district  in  which  it  was  obtained. 
These  expeditions  sometimes  passed  through  the  Tarn- 
dale  country  to  the  Upper  Waiauua,  and  from  thence 
through  the  Kopiokaitangata,  or  Cannibal  Gorge,  at  the 
head  of  the  Marina  River,  into  the  valley  of  the  Grey, 


whence  they  ran  down  the  coast  to  the  main  settlements 
from  the  mouth  of  that  river  to  Jackson  Bay,  and  at 
other  times  passed  from  the  Conway  and  other  points  on 
the  East  Coast  through  the  Hanmer  Plains  to  the  valley 
of  the  Ahaura,  a  tributary  of  the  Grey,  and  so  to  the 
same  localities. 

The  line  of  route  by  the  Cannibal  Gorge  runs  partly 
.through  a  tract  of  country  which   I  now  occupy  as  a 

Tatooing  on  Te  Pehi's  face. 

•  cattle-run,  and  my  men  have  frequently  found  stone 
axes,  pawa  shells,  remains  of  eel-baskets,  and  other 
articles,  left  on  the  line  of  march ;  similar  articles  being 
also  found  on  the  line  through  the  Hanmer  Plains.  The 
scenery  of  the  upper  country  on  the  line  by  the  Cannibal 
Gorge  is  very  grand  and  beautiful,  the  valley  of  Ada,  the 
head  waters  of  which  rise  within  half  a  mile  of  those  of 


the  Marina,  running  through  an  immense  cleft  in  the 
Spencer  Mountains,  the  summits  of  Mount  Una  and  the 
Fairy  Queen,  capped  with  perpetual  snow,  rising  abruptly 
on  each  side  of  the  stream,  to  a  height  little  under  6,000 
feet,  whilst  the  valley  itself  is  rarely  more  than  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  in  breadth.  The  Cannibal  Gorge  is  extremely 
rugged,  and  the  fall  of  the  river  tremendous,  its  waters, 
when  swollen  by  rain  and  melting  snow,  pouring  down 
the  gorge  for  miles  in  a  perfect  cataract  of  foam,  and 
with  a  roar,  which,  echoed  from  the  rocky  glens  on  each 
side,  rivals  that  of  Niagara. 

During  their  journeys  to  the  coast  through  these 
rugged  scenes  the  war  parties  lived  entirely  on  eels, 
wekas,  and  kakapos,  which,  at  that  time,  were  numerous 
in  the  ranges  ;  whilst  on  their  return,  after  a  successful 
raid,  human  flesh  was  often  carried  by  the  slaves  they 
had  taken,  and  the  latter  were,  not  unfrequently,  killed 
in  order  to  afford  a  banquet  to  their  captors.  During 
these  expeditions  large  quantities  of  greenstone,  both  in 
rough  blocks  and  in  well-fashioned  weapons — an  art 
especially  known  to  the  West  Coast  natives — were  often 
obtained,  if  the  invaders  was  not  discovered  in  time  to 
permit  the  inhabitants  to  conceal  themselves  and  their 
treasures,  and  it  was  the  accumulated  wealth  of  many 
years  which  Te  Eauparaha  expected  to  acquire  in  case 
he  should  prove  victorious  in  his  projected  attack  upon 
Rerewhaka  and  his  people. 




IT  was  not  till  the  morning  of  the  fourth  day  after 
leaving  D'Urville  Island  that  the  war  party  reached  the 
Kaikoura  Peninsula,  and  as  they  had  arrived  before 
daylight  they  anchored  a  short  distance  from  the  shore, 
in  order  that  they  might  be  enabled  at  dawn  to  recon- 
noitre the  position  of  the  enemy  before  landing.  It 
would  appear  that  the  Ngaitahus  at  that  time  expected  a 
visit  from  a  southern  chief  of  their  own  tribe,  with  a 
considerable  following,  and  that  on  the  morning  in 
question,  seeing  the  canoes  of  Te  Eauparaha's  party  at 
anchor,  and  not  having  noticed  the  direction  from  which 
they  had  come,  they  mistook  them  for  those  of  their 
friends,  and  large  numbers  of  the  people  of  the  pa  ran 
down  to  the  shore,  shouting  the  cry  of  welcome  to  the 
supposed  visitors,  who,  at  once  seeing  the  advantage 
which  the  mistake  would  afford  them  in  their  intended 
attack,  made  for  the  shore  with  all  possible  speed,  and 
having  reached  it  jumped  out  of  the  canoes,  and  immedi- 
ately commenced  the  attack. 

The  unfortunate  people  being  quite  unarmed,  and 
taken  by  surprise,  endeavoured  to  escape  by  retreating 
towards  the  pa,  which,  in  the  general  confusion,  was 
taken  without  difficulty,  some  1,400  of  the  people, 
including  women  and  children,  being  killed  or  taken 



prisoners,  amongst  the  latter  of  whom  was  the  chief 
Rerewhaka,  whose  threat  Te  Rauparaha  was  then 
avenging.  After  remaining  for  some  time  to  feast  upon 
the  bodies  of  the  slain,  and  to  plunder  the  pa  of  its 
treasures,  the  victorious  Ngatitoa  returned  with  their 
prisoners  to  Kapiti,  where  the  greater  number  of  the 
latter,  including  Rerewhaka  himself,  were  put  to  death 
and  eaten,  the  chief  having  been  sacrificed  with  great 
cruelty  on  account  of  the  threat  which  had  been  the 
prime  cause  of  the  attack.  In  consequence  of  this 
circumstance  Te  Rauparaha  named  the  battle  the  "  niho 
manga,  or  battle  of  the  shark's  tooth." 

At  the  time  of  this  event  another  section  of  the  Ngai- 
tahu  tribe  occupied  an  extensive  pa  called  Kaiapohia,  about 
fourteen  miles  north  of  Christchurch,  with  the  inhabi- 
tants of  which  Te  Rauparaha  made  up  his  mind  to  pick 
a  quarrel  at  the  first  convenient  opportunity,  but  he  felt 
that  the  force  he  had  under  his  command  at  Kaikoura 
was  too  small  for  the  purpose  of  any  attack  upon  it, 
particularly  after  the  enemy  had  received  notice  of  the 
fall  of  the  latter  place,  and  had  had  time  to  make 
preparations  for  defence. 

In  the  following  year,  before  he  had  had  an  opportunity 
of  devising  any  particular  scheme  for  the  purpose  of 
bringing  about  a  quarrel  between  himself  and  the  Kaiapoi 
people,  he  was  induced  again  to  attack  upon  the  remnant 
of  the  Ngaitahu  at  Kaikoura,  in  consequence  of  an  insult 
put  upon  Rangihaeata  by  a  Ngatikahungunu  chief 
named  Kekerengu,  who,  dreading  the  consequences,  had 
fled  across  the  strait  and  taken  refuge  with  them.  Te 
Rauparaha  collected  a  considerable  band  of  Ngatitoa  and 
their  allies,  under  his  own  leadership,  with  Te  Pehi,  Pohai- 
tara,  Rangihaeata,  and  other  principal  chiefs  under  him, 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OP    TE    RAUPARAHA        131 

and  started  for  the  Wairau,  whence  he  made  his  way 
along  the  coast  to  Kaikoura.  On  his  arrival  there  he 
found  that  the  pa  had  been  evacuated  on  their  approach, 
the  inhabitants  flying  down  the  Amuri.  They  were 
overtaken  by  the  war  party  at  a  pa  called  Omihi,  where 

Decorated  Head  of  Te  Rauparaha's  War  Canoe. 

they  were  attacked   and  routed   with   great    slaughter, 
numbers  of  prisoners  being  also  taken. 

These  were  left  in  charge  of  a  detachment,  whilst  the 
rest  of  the  force  pushed  with  all  speed  for  Kaiapohia,  in 
order  that  Te  Bauparaha  might  put  his  design  against  its 
inhabitants  into  execution.  The  pa  of  that  name  was 
situated  just  within  the  line  of  the  coast  dunes  of 

132        THE    STIRRING    TIMES    OP   TE    RAUPARAHA 

Pegasus  Bay,  about  a  mile  to  the  south  of  the  Eiver 
Ashley,  and  was  erected  upon  a  promontory  about  nine 
or  ten  acres  in  extent,  which  extends  into  a  deep  swamp 
lying  between  the  sand  dunes  and  the  bank  of  the  river. 
This  swamp,  which  is  very  deep,  nearly  surrounds  the 
site  of  the  pa,  and  prevented  it  from  being  attacked 
at  any  point  except  in  front ;  and  along  the  line  of  the 
front,  extending  from  one  branch  of  the  swamp  to  the 
other,  a  distance  of  about  250  yards,  it  was  defended  by 
a  double  line  of  heavy  palisading  and  a  deep  ditch,  with 
two  large  outworks,  from  which  a  flank  fire  could  be 
maintained  on  any  party  attempting  to  scale  the 

I  have  frequently  visited  the  site  of  this  pa,  which 
still  exhibits  unmistakeable  evidences  of  the  conflict 
which  took  place  there,  including  many  relics  of  the 
special  festivities  with  which  the  Maoris  invariably 
celebrated  their  victories.  I  was  informed  that  after  its 
fall  (which  will  shortly  be  fully  detailed)  the  principal 
defenders  threw  large  numbers  of  their  choicest  green- 
stone weapons  and  ornaments  into  the  deepest  part  of 
the  swamp,  where  they  still  lie,  to  reward  any  enter- 
prising person  who  will  drain  it  for  the  purpose  of 
recovering  them. 

When  Te  Eauparaha  and  his  people  arrived  at  the  pa, 
they  at  once  opened  intercourse  with  the  chiefs, 
pretending  that  they  had  come  to  seek  their  friendship, 
and  desired  to  barter  fire-arms  and  ammunition  in 
exchange  for  greenstone,  in  which  the  people  of  Kaiapoi, 
like  their  kinsfolk  at  Kaikoura,  were  extremely  rich,  but 
the  latter,  having  been  informed  by  some  refugees  of  the 
slaughter  at  Omihi,  distrusted  the  good  intentions  of 
their  visitors.  In  order,  however,  to  remove  all  pretext 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   RAUPARAHA         133 

for  hostilities  they  received  them  with  great  appearance 
of  cordiality,  and  treated  the  chiefs  who  visited  their 
houses  with  ostentatious  hospitality.  Te  Eauparaha 
himself,  however,  could  not  be  induced  to  enter  the  pa, 
the  wily  chief  feeling  that  he  had  too  surely  earned  their 
animosity  by  the  slaughter  of  their  kinsfolk,  and,  there- 
fore, could  not  justly  place  much  trust  upon  their 
professions  of  friendship. 

It  appears,  according  to  the  Ngatitoa  account  of  the 
affair,  that  Te  Pehi,  who  in  order  to  keep  up  the 
deception  had  carried  on  a  trade  with  some  of  the 
people,  let  the  cat  out  of  the  bag ;  for  a  Ngaitahu  chief 
having  expressed  great  unwillingness  to  part  with  a 
coveted  greenstone  weapon,  was  told  by  Te  Pehi,  in 
anger,  "  Why  do  you,  with  the  crooked  tatoo,  resist  my 
wishes;  you,  whose  nose  will  shortly  cut  off  with  a 
hatchet."  This  confirmation  from  the  lips  of  one  of  the 
chiefs  in  command  of  the  Ngatitoa  of  their  preconception 
of  the  real  designs  of  Te  Eauparaha's  party,  determined 
the  people  in  the  pa  to  strike  a  blow  which  would  prevent 
Te  Eauparaha  from  further  prosecuting  his  design,  at 
least  at  that  time ;  and,  for  this  purpose,  they  resolved  to 
kill  the  chiefs  then  in  the  pa,  amongst  whom,  besides  Te 
Pehi,  were  Pokaitara,  Te  Aratangata,  of  Ngatiraukawa, 
and  others  of  note. 

Pokaitara  had  taken  to  wife  from  amongst  the 
prisoners  at  Kaikoura  the  daughter  of  Eongatara,  one  of 
the  Ngaitahu  chieftains  then  in  the  pa,  and  having  been 
invited  to  the  house  of  the  latter  under  pretext  of 
receiving  a  present  of  greenstone,  proceeded  thither 
without  suspicion  of  foul  play.  As  he  stooped  to  enter 
the  house  the  old  chief,  Eongatara,  took  hold  of  his  mat, 
saying,  '  Welcome,  welcome,  my  daughter's  lord,"  at  the 


same  time  killing  him  by  a  blow  on  the  head  with  the 
greenstone  club  which  he  expected  to  have  received  as  a 
gift.  The  death  of  Pokaitara  was  the  signal  for  a  general 
slaughter  of  the  Ngatitoa  chiefs,  who  were  at  once 
despatched,  their  bodies  being  destined  to  the  umus  of 
their  murderers. 

The  slaughter  of  his  uncle,  and  of  so  many  of  his 
leading  chiefs,  was  a  severe  blow  to  Te  Rauparaha,  who, 
with  the  rest  of  his  party,  at  once  fell  back  on  Omihi, 
where  he  re-united  his  forces.  In  part  revenge  for  the 
murder,  he  at  once  slew  all  the  prisoners,  and,  after 
devouring  their  bodies,  returned  to  the  Wairau,  whence 
they  crossed  over  to  Kapiti. 

The  Ngaitahu  account  of  the  origin  of  the  quarrel  is 
different,  and  I  give  it  from  a  petition  presented,  in  1869, 
to  the  House  of  Eepresentatives,  by  Patterson,  then 
Maori  member  for  the  Southern  Maori  Electoral  Dis- 
trict. The  petition  refers  to  a  letter  addressed  to 
Patterson  by  the  runanga,  or  local  council,  of  the  Maoris 
living  near  the  European  village  of  Kaiapoi,  which  is 
situated  on  the  banks  of  the  Waimakariri  Eiver,  some 
miles  south  of  the  pa  above  referred  to. 

The  following  is  the  text  of  the  letter,  which  I  give 
nearly  entire,  as  being  of  much  interest  in  connection 
with  my  story  : — 

"  To  Patterson, — 

"  0  friend,  salutations  to  you,  and  to  the  Assembly, 
that  is  to  say,  the  great  chiefs  who  work  for  justice  and 

"  0  sir,  this  is  the  matter  which  we  submit  to  you,  do 
you  publish  it  to  the  Assembly,  so  that  the  great  doctors 
may  examine  this  disease.  The  disease  is  the  sale  by 
Ngatitoa  of  this  land. 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE   HAUPARAHA         133 

"  After  you  had  left,  the  runanga  gave  their  attention 
to  the  question  of  the  affliction  under  which  they  are 
suffering,  and  now  it  is  submitted  to  the  great  doctor  to 
be  prescribed  for  by  him.  Had  the  defeat  of  the  people 
at  this  land  been  equal  to  that  of  the  people  of  Rangitikei 
and  Manawatu  by  Te  Eauparaha  and  Ngatiraukawa, 
where  the  people  were  killed  and  the  land  was  taken 
possession  of,  and  has  been  kept  up  to  this  time,  then  it 
would  have  been  right  that  we  should  suffer  under  this 
affliction.  But,  as  for  the  defeat  of  the  natives  of  Kaiapoi, 
the  Maori  runanga  consider  that  is  very  clear  that  the 
battles  in  which  the  Kaiapoi  natives  were  defeated  were 
not  followed  up  by  occupation  on  the  part  of  the  victors. 

"  According  to  our  view  the  killing  of  the  Kaiapoi 
natives  was  caused  by  the  Rangitane,  who  said  that  Te 
Rauparaha  was  to  be  killed,  with  a  stick  used  for  beating 
fern-root.  He  then  attacked  the  Rangitane,  and  defeated 
them.  When  Rerewhaka  heard  that  his  relatives  had 
been  slain,  he  said  that  he  would  rip  Te  Rauparaha's 
belly  up  with  the  tooth  of  a  barracoota  :  it  was  through 
that  that  this  evil  visited  this  place.  Rerewhaka  was 
living  amongst  the  people  of  Kaiapoi  when  he  said  that. 
Te  Rauparaha  should  have  killed  that  man,  for  he  was 
the  cause  of  the  crime  ;  he  spared  him,  but  killed  the 
descendants  of  Tuteahuka.  O  friends,  the  men  of 
Kaiapoi  were  in  deep  distress  on  account  of  the  killing 
of  their  relatives  at  Kaikoura  and  at  Omihi.  Now  these 
two  pas  were  destroyed  by  Te  Rauparaha  ;  then  Ngati- 
tuteahuka  and  Ngatihikawaikura,  the  people  of  Kaiapoi, 
bewailed  their  defeat.  Te  Rauparaha  should  have  borne 
in  mind  that  the  flesh  of  our  relatives  was  still  sticking 
to  his  teeth,  and  he  should  have  gone  away  and  left  it  to 
us  to  seek  payment  for  our  dead  after  him ;  but  he  did 
not,  he  came  to  Kaiapoi. 


"When  he  came  the  old  chiefs  of  Kaiapoi  wished  to 
make  peace,  and  sent  Tamaiharanui  to  Te  Eauparaha. 
On  their  meeting  they  made  peace,  and  the  talk  of 
Tamaiharanui  and  Te  Pehi  was  good.  After  Tamai- 
haranui had  started  to  come  back,  Te  Eauparaha  went 
to  another  pa  of  ours,  called  Tuahiwi,  and  there 
sought  for  the  grandmother  of  Tamaiharanui.  They  dug 
her  body  up  and  ate  it,  all  decomposed  as  it  was. 
Tamaiharanui  was  greatly  distressed,  and  threatened  to 
kill  the  war  party  of  Te  Eauparaha.  Then  his  elder 
relatives,  the  great  chiefs  of  Kaiapoi,  said  to  him,  '  0  son, 
do  not,  lest  further  evil  follow  in  your  footsteps.'  He 
replied,  It  would  not  have  mattered  had  I  been  away 
when  this  decomposed  body  was  eaten,  but,  as  it  is,  it 
has  taken  place  in  my  very  .presence.'  Well,  as  the 
chief  gave  the  word,  Te  Pehi,  a  great  chief  of  Ngatitoa, 
and  others  were  killed.  Then  Te  Eauparaha  went 

Such  is  the  Ngaitahu  account  of  the  origin  of  the 
quarrel,  which  I  am  inclined  to  accept.  It  will  be 
thought  strange  that  Te  Eauparaha  did  not,  without 
seeking  any  pretence  for  the  act,  attack  the  pa  in  force, 
but  to  have  done  so  would  have  been  a  violation  of  the 
Maori  etiquette  in  matters  relating  to  war.  He  had 
taken  vengeance  for  the  threat  of  Eerewhaka,  and  it  was 
for  the  relatives  of  the  latter  to  strike  the  next  blow, 
which  it  appears  they  were  unwilling  to  do,  dreading  the 
very  results  which  afterwards  followed  in  revenge  for  the 
killing  of  Te  Pehi. 

Te  Eauparaha  brooded  much  over  this  murder  of  his 
relative,  who,  having  accepted  a  secondary  position  in 
the  tribe,  no  longer  excited  his  jealousy,  and  had  greatly 
assisted  him  as  a  wise  counsellor  and  valiant  leader. 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OF    TE    RAUPARAHA        137 

After  full  consultation  with  the  other  chiefs  of  the  tribe, 
he  resolved  that  his  revenge  should  be  carried  out  by  an 
act  as  treacherous  as  that  by  which  the  death  of  Te  Pehi 
and  'his  companions  had  been  brought  about ;  and  whilst 
still  revolving  in  his  mind  the  best  means  of  accom- 
plishing this  design,  a  European  vessel  arrived  at  Kapiti, 
from  Sydney,  after  having  passed  through  Foveaux  Strait 
and  visited  the  Auckland  Islands  for  the  purpose  of 
leaving  a  party  of  sealers  at  the  latter  place. 

Amongst  the  passengers  by  this  vessel  was  Hohepa 
Tamaihengia,  a  near  relative  of  Te  Bauparaha,  who,  on 
leaving  Foveaux  Strait,  had  heard  of  the  murder  of  Te 
Pehi  and  his  companions  from  the  Maoris  there.  Hohepa 
himself  at  once  conceived  the  project  of  seizing  and 
killing  some  of  the  Ngaitahu  chiefs  in  utu  for  their 
death,  and  entered  into  arrangements  with  the  master 
of  the  vessel  to  proceed  to  Akaroa  for  that  purpose. 
This  plan,  however,  having  become  known  to  some 
European  passengers  who  were  about  to  join  a  whaling 
party  in  Queen  Charlotte  Sound,  they  dissuaded  the 
master  from  carrying  it  into  effect,  and  the  vessel 
proceeded  direct  to  Kapiti. 

Hohepa  communicated  his  design  to  Te  Rauparaha, 
who  determined  to  follow  it  out  on  the  first  convenient 
opportunity.  Some  time  after  the  departure  of  this 
vessel,  the  English  brig  "  Elizabeth  "  arrived  at  Kapiti. 
This  vessel  was  commanded  by  a  person  named  Stewart, 
to  whom  Te  Rauparaha  offered  a  large  cargo  of  flax  if  he 
would  carry  him  and  a  chosen  party  of  warriors  to 
Akaroa,  for  the  purpose  of  seizing  Tamaiharanui,  the 
principal  chief  of  the  Ngaitahu,  who  had  been  present  at 
Kaiapoi,  at  the  time  of  the  murder  of  Te  Pehi,  and  had 
indeed  taken  an  active  part  in  counselling  it. 


Stewart  assented  to  the  proposal,  and  conveyed  Te 
Eauparaha  and  his  warriors  to  Akaroa,  where  the 
European  scoundrel,  at  the  instigation  of  his  charterer, 
opened  communication  with  the  unsuspecting  Tamai- 
haranui,  and  ultimately  induced  him,  with  his  wife  and 
daughter,  by  the  promise  of  some  guns  and  powder,  to 
come  on  board,  where  he  was  at  once  seized  by  Te 
Eauparaha,  who,  with  his  men,  had  up  to  this  time 
remained  concealed  in  the  hold  of  the  vessel.  Having 
bound  the  captured  thief,  they  remained  quiet  until 
nightfall,  and  then  landing  in  the  ship's  boats,  attacked 
the  Ngaitahu  in  their  village,  of  whom  they  killed  large 
numbers.  The  bodies  of  the  slain  were  taken  on  board 
the  vessel,  which  at  once  set  sail  for  Kapiti. 

On  the  passage  up  the  successful  taua  feasted  on  these 
bodies,  using  the  ship's  coppers  for  cooking  them.  It 
may  be  that  when  Stewart  engaged  his  vessel  for  thi& 
expedition  he  was  not  made  aware  of  the  intentions  of  Te 
Eauparaha,  or  did  not  foresee  the  results  which  followed, 
whilst  he  was  certainly  unable  to  prevent  the  atrocities 
which  were  perpetrated  on  board  of  her,  but  his  name 
will  always  be  infamous  for  his  connection  with  this 
atrocious  affair.  It  appears  that  the  unfortunate 
Tamaiharanui  attempted  to  commit  suicide,  in  con- 
sequence of  which  he  was  chained  in  the  cabin,  but  his 
hands  being  free,  he  managed  to  strangle  his  daughter, 
and  push  her  body  through  one  of  the  after  ports,  in 
order  to  save  her  from  the  indignities  to  which  she  would 
be  subjected  by  her  ruthless  captors.  But  he  himself 
was  taken  alive  to  Kapiti,  where  he  was  delivered  over  to 
the  widows  of  Te  Pehi,  who  subjected  him  to  frightful 
tortures,  until  at  length  he  was  put  out  of  his  misery  by 
a  red-hot  ramrod  being  passed  through  his  neck. 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OF   TE    RAUPARA.HA        139 

The  following  is  the  account  given  to  me  by  Tamihana 
Te  Eauparaha  of  the  mode  in  which  the  unfortunate 
chief  was  delivered  over  to  his  death  :— "  When  the 
vessel  arrived  at  Kapiti  it  was  proclaimed  that 
Tamaiharanui  was  on  board,  and  the  people  were 
delighted.  Ngaitahu  had  thought  there  was  only  the 
flowing  sea  (i.e.,  that  there  was  no  one  going  to  attack 
them),  but  they  were  deceived,  and  Tamaiharanui  was 
taken.  There  were  not  many  people  left  in  charge  of 
Kapiti  when  the  ship  returned;  they  were  at  Waikanae 
and  Otaki  scraping  flax  as  cargo  for  the  vessel.  Te  Pehi's 
widows  were  at  Waitohu,  near  Otaki,  scraping  flax. 
Tamaiharanui  was  then  taken  to  Otaki  in  Te  Bauparaha's 
canoe  to  be  shown  to  those  widows,  as  it  was  to  be  left 
to  them  to  determine  whether  he  was  to  be  killed  or 
allowed  to  live. 

"  When  they  arrived  at  Otaki  he  asked  Te  Eauparaha 
to  spare  him,  but  Te  Bauparaha  replied  :  '  If  the  party 
killed,  that  is,  Te  Pehi,  belonged  to  me,  I  would  save 
you,  but  as  the  dead  belonged  to  Ngatitoa,  I  cannot  save 
you.'  He  was  then  taken  to  Waitohu,  to  be  seen  by  the 
widows,  and  by  Tiaia,  the  chief  wife  Te  Pehi,  and  was 
then  delivered  over  to  them.  They  hung  him  on  a  tree 
and  killed  him  with  great  torture,  and  he  died  when  a 
red-hot  ramrod  was  put  through  his  neck  by  Tiaia.  Te 
Eauparaha  did  not  witness  his  death." 

It  is  impossible  to  conceive  that  women  could  descend 
so  low  in  the  scale  of  humanity  as  to  commit  such 
atrocities  without  any  sentiment  of  compassion  or  of 
remorse,  but  those  who  are  familiar  with  the  history  of 
the  times  of  which  I  write,  may  recall  many  frightful 
instances  of  barbarity  of  the  same  kind. 


Amongst  these,  one  of  the  most  cruel  which  has  come 
under  my  notice  is  the  following,  related  by  Wilson  in 
his  "  Three  Chapters  in  the  Life  of  Te  Waharoa  "  : — "  We 
may  here  mention  a  tragedy — all  are  tragedies  in  this 
chapter  of  horrors.  Mr.  Knight  was  accustomed,  every 
morning  about  sunrise,  to  attend  a  school  at  Ohinemutu 
Pa,  but  as  there  were  no  scholars  on  the  morning  of  the 
12th  May,  he  went  to  the  place  where  he  was  told  they 
would  be  found.  There  he  perceived  a  great  number  of 
people  sitting  in  two  assemblages  on  the  ground— one 
entirely  of  men,  the  other  of  women  and  the  chief  Pango. 
The  former  company  he  joined,  and  conversed  with  them, 
as  well  as  he  was  able,  on  the  sin  of  cannibalism,  but 
Korokai  and  all  laughed  at  the  idea  of  burying  their 

"  Their  conversation  ceased,  however,  on  Knight  hearing 
the  word  patua  (kill)  repeated  several  times ;  and  looking 
round  toward  the  women,  he  was  horrified  to  see  the 
widow  of  the  late  chief  Haupapa,  who  had  been  killed  at 
Maketu,  standing  naked  and  armed  with  a  tomahawk, 
whilst  another  woman,  also  nude,  and  Pango  were 
dragging  a  woman  taken  prisoner  at  Te  Tumu,  that  she 
might  be  killed  by  Mrs.  Haupapa,  in  the  open  space 
between  the  men  and  the  women.  Mr.  Knight 
immediately  sprang  forward,  and  entreated  them  not  to 
hurt  the  woman,  but  Mrs.  Haupapa,  paying  no  attention, 
raised  her  hatchet ;  on  this,  Knight  caught  the  weapon 
and  pulled  it  out  of  her  hand,  whereupon  the  other 
woman  angrily  wrenched  it  from  his  grasp,  and  would 
have  killed  him  had  not  Pango  interposed  by  running  at 
him  and  giving  him  a  blow  and  thrust  that  nearly  sent 
him  into  the  lake.  He  was,  however,  about  to  return 
when  the  natives  seized  him  and  held  him  back. 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OF    TE    RAUPARAHA         141 

"  Just  then,  the  poor  woman  slipping  out  of  the 
garments  which  she  was  held  by,  rushed  to  Knight,  and 
falling  down,  clasped  his  knees  convulsively,  in  an  agony 
of  terror.  Her  murderers  came,  and  abusing  the  pakeha 
the  while  for  pokanoaing  (interfering  or  meddling),  with 
difficulty  dragged  her  from  her  hold.  The  helpless 
pakeha  says,  '  It  would  have  melted  the  heart  of  a  stone  ' 
to  hear  her  calling  each  relative  by  name,  beseeching 
them  to  save  her,  for  though  a  Tauranga  woman,  she  was 
connected  with  Eotorua,  and  to  see  her  last  despairing, 
supplicating  look,  as  she  was  taken  a  few  yards  off  and 
killed  by  that  virago  Mrs.  Haupapa. 

"  Now  this  scene  occurred  simply  because  Haupapa's 
widow  longed  to  assuage  the  sorrow  of  her  bereaved 
heart,  by  despatching,  with  her  own  hand,  some  prisoner 
of  rank  as  utu  for  her  lord.  The  tribe  respected  her 
desire;  they  assembled  to  witness  the  spectacle,  and 
furnished  a  victim  by  handing  over  a  chief's  widow  to 
her  will." 

It  may,  as  I  have  before  observed,  seem  strange  that 
Te  Eauparaha  did  not  at  once  take  the  bolder  and  more 
manly  course  of  attacking  the  Ngaitahu  at  Kaiapoi,  in 
the  ordinary  way  of  warfare,  for  the  purpose  of  avenging 
the  murder  of  Te  Pehi  and  his  brother  chiefs,  but  I  was 
informed  by  his  son  that  the  course  he  adopted  was 
strictly  tika,  or  in  other  words,  in  accordance  with  Maori 
etiquette  in  such  matters,  and  that,  indeed,  any  other  line 
of  action  would  not  properly  have  met  the  exigencies  of 
the  case. 

That  Te  Eauparaha  was  not  limited  to  the  adoption  of 
what  we  should  consider  the  treacherous  plan  of  revenge 
above  related  is  clear  from  the  events  which  I  am  about 
to  refer  to,  for  in  about  a  year  after  the  capture  of 

142        THE    STIREING    TIMES    OF    TE    RAUPABAHA 

Tamaiharanui  our  chief  determined,  in  furtherance  of  his 
original  design,  to  attack  the  great  pa  at  Kaiapoi.  For 
this  purpose  he  assembled  a  large  force,  comprising 
Ngatitoa,  Ngatiawa,  and  Ngatiraukawa,  part  of  whom 
made  their  way  through  the  Wairau  Gorge  and  the 
Hanmer  Plains  to  the  Waipara  River,  which  flows  into 
the  sea  near  the  north  head  of  Pegasus  Bay ;  whilst  he 
with  the  main  body  of  his  forces  passed  over  to  the 
East  Coast,  and  from  thence  down  that  coast  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Waipara,  where  they  were  joined  by  the 
inland  party. 

The  inland  line  of  march  runs  through  some  of  the 
most  picturesque  country  in  New  Zealand,  the  gorge  of 
the  Wairau,  especially,  being  rugged  and  grand  in  the 
extreme.  I  was  the  first  European  who  ever  passed 
through  this  gorge,  which  I  did  in  1859  or  1860  for  the 
purpose  of  determining  whether  it  would  afford  a 
practicable  line  of  communication  between  Nelson  and 
Canterbury,  and  on  that  occasion  I  was  accompanied  by 
a  Ngatitoa  man,  who  had  been  one  of  the  inland  war 
party  on  the  occasion  above  referred  to.  Singular  to 
state,  however,  I  found,  after  passing  through  the  gorge, 
that  he  had  entirely  forgotten  the  line  of  route  between 
Tarndale  and  the  pass  into  the  Hanmer  Plains,  and  the 
season  was,  unfortunately,  too  far  advanced  to  permit  of 
my  attempting  to  discover  it  independently.  Indeed, 
my  party  was  snowed  up  for  several  days,  and  as  we  ran 
some  risk  of  getting  short  of  food  for  the  return  journey, 
I  was  reluctantly  compelled  to  give  up  the  design. 

This  was,  however,  of  little  importance,  as  Mr.  Weld, 
afterwards  Governor  of  Western  Australia,  had,  a  few 
days  before  my  passage  through  the  upper  part  of 
the  gorge,  found  his  way  into  Tarndale  over  the  mount 

THE    STIRRING    TIMES    OF   TE    RAUPARAHA         143 

near  the  junction  of  the  Wairau  and  Kopiouenuku 
Elvers,  and  had  established  the  connections  between  that 
place  and  the  pass  known  as  Jollie's  Pass,  leading  from 
the  Clarence  River  into  the  Hanmer  Plains.  Subsequent 
explorations  of  my  own  resulted  in  the  discovery,  of 
the  country  in  the  Upper  Waiauua  and  the  line  of  the 
Cannibal  Gorge,  and  of  a  shorter  and  easier  pass  from 
Tarndale  into  the  Hanmer  Plains,  being  probably  the  one 
used  by  the  native  party  above  referred  to. 

After  the  junction  of  the  two  bodies  Te  Eauparaha 
proceeded  at  once  to  Kaiapohia  for  the  purpose  of 
attacking  the  pa.  The  Ngaitahu  were  evidently  quite 
unprepared  for  this  fresh  invasion,  a  large  number  of 
their  warriors  being  absent  at  Port  Cooper,  whither  they 
had  accompanied  Taiaroa  (father  of  the  member  of  the 
House  of  Eepresentatives  of  that  name),  who  was  then 
the  leading  chief  of  that  portion  of  their  tribe,  which 
occupied  the  country  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  present 
site  of  Dunedin,  and  who  was  returning  home  after  a 
visit  to  his  kinsfolk  at  Kaiapohia.  Others  of  the  people 
were  engaged  in  their  cultivations  outside  of  the  pa, 
which  was,  in  fact,  only  occupied  by  a  small  number  of 
able-bodied  warriors  and  a  few  of  the  older  men,  and 
some  women  and  children. 

So  carefully  had  Te  Eauparaha  concealed  the  approach 
of  his  war  party  that  the  first  intimation  which  the 
inhabitants  of  the  pa  received  of  it  was  the  sound  of  the 
firing  as  his  force  attacked  the  people  in  the  cultivations, 
and  the  cries  of  the  dying  and  wounded ;  and  they  had 
barely  time  to  close  the  gates  of  the  outworks  and  to 
man  the  line  of  defences  before  a  number  of  the  enemy 
appeared  in  front  of  it.  The  Ngatitoa  at  once  sprang  to 
the  assault,  hoping  to  carry  the  defences  by  a  coup  de 

144        THE    STIRRING    TIMES    OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

main,  but  were  repulsed  with  some  slaughter  ;  and  after 
renewing  the  attempt  and  finding  them  too  strong  to  be 
thus  overcome,  they  determined  to  commence  a  regular 

For  that  purpose  they  intrenched  themselves  on  the 
ground  in  front  of  the  pa,  at  the  same  time  occupying 
some  sand-hills  which  commanded  it  on  the  eastern  side, 

but  from  which 
it  is  separated 
by  a  branch 
of  the  great 
swamp  before 
referred  to.  In 
the  meantime, 
some  of  the 
Ngaitahu  who 
had  escaped 
from  the  first 
attack,  favour- 
ed in  so  doing 
by  their  intim- 
ate knowledge 
of  the  line  of 
swamps  which 
occupies  the 
the  sea  coast 


between   the    sand-dunes   and 


as  far  as  Banks  Peninsula,  managed  to  reach  Port 
Cooper,  where  they  informed  their  people  of  the  attack 
upon  the  pa,  arriving  there  in  time  to  stop  Taiaroa 
and  those  who  were  about  to  accompany  him  to  Otago. 

After  collecting  reinforcements  from  the  villages  on 
the  peninsula,  Taiaroa  and  his  forces  made  their  way 
along  the  coast  line  as  far  as  the  Waimakariri,  availing 


themselves  of  the  swamps  above  referred  to,  for  the 
purpose  of  concealing  their  march  from  any  detached 
parties  of  the  Ngatitoa.  On  reaching  the  Waimakariri 
they  crossed  it  on  rafts  (commonly  called  mokihi  by  the 
natives)  made  of  dried  stalks  of  the  flax,  and  concealed 
themselves  until  dark. 

Finding  the  hostile  forces  encamped  along  the  front  of 
the  pa,  and  warned  by  their  watch-fires  that  they  were 
on  the  alert,  they  determined  to  ford  the  swamp  at  a 
narrow  point  on  its  western  side,  and  to  enter  it  through 
an  outwork  erected  there,  that  being  the  only  point 
along  the  line  of  the  swamp  which  was  at  all  weak. 
Using  the  utmost  caution  in  their  approach  to  this  point 
they  succeeded  in  reaching  it  without  having  attracted 
the  notice  of  the  besiegers,  and  at  once  plunged  into  the 
swamp,  trusting  to  be  able  to  struggle  through  it  and 
enter  the  pa  without  being  attacked  by  the  Ngatitoa. 
Knowing,  however,  that  the  defenders  would  also  be  on  the 
alert,  they  shouted  the  name  of  Taiaroa  as  they  plunged 
into  the  water,  in  the  hope  that  their  friends  would 
recognise  their  voices  and  take  the  necessary  steps  to 
admit  them ;  but  the  latter,  believing  it  to  be  a  ruse  of  the 
Ngatitoa,  opened  fire  upon  them,  which  was  kept  up 
vigorously  for  some  time.  The  error  having  at  last  been 
discovered,  and  little  damage  having  fortunately  been 
done,  the  main  body  of  the  warriors  were  admitted  into 
the  pa,  to  the  great  joy  of  the  handful  of  people  by  whom, 
up  to  that  time,  the  defence  had  been  maintained. 

The  siege  operations  were,  however,  in  but  a  slight 
degree  affected  by  this  accession  of  strength  to  the 
besieged,  for  although  they  made  frequent  sorties  against 
the  works  of  the  Ngatitoa,  these  experienced  warriors 
held  them  without  difficulty,  and  repulsed  them  all  with 


146         THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OF    TE    RAUPARAHA 

loss  to  the  assailants.  The  Ngaitahu,  dispirited  by  their 
failures,  soon  abandoned  these  tactics,  and,  trusting  in 
the  impregnable  nature  of  the  pa,  confined  themselves  to 
purely  defensive  operations.  I  ought  to  mention  that 
at  the  time  the  siege  commenced  the  pa  was  well 
provisioned,  besides  which  the  lagoon  yielded  large 
supplies  of  eels,  so  that  the  defenders  ran  little  risk  of 
being  obliged  to  surrender  on  account  of  famine,  whilst 
the  besiegers,  on  the  other  hand,  were  compelled  to 
depend  on  foraging  parties  for  supplies,  and  frequently 
ran  short  of  provisions.  Indeed,  the  difficulty  of  feeding 
his  men  was  the  chief  cause  which  led  to  the  adoption 
of  a  plan  of  attack  which,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  was  then 
adopted  for  the  first  time  in  Maori  warfare. 

A  council  of  war  having  been  held,  it  was  determined 
to  sap  up  to  the  two  outworks,  and  as  soon  as  the  head 
of  the  sap  had  been  carried  up  to  them,  to  pile  up  in 
front  of  them  immense  quantities  of  dried  brushwood, 
which  were  to  be  set  ori  fire  when  the  wind  blew  in  the 
direction  of  the  pa,  and  to  rush  it  so  soon  as  the 
palisading  had  been  burned  down.  This  plan  was  carried 
out,  and  the  two  lines  of  sap  exist  to  this  day,  and  are  as 
well  carried  out  as  if  done  by  the  most  experienced 
European  engineers. 

At  first  Te  Rauparaha  suffered  considerable  loss,  for 
the  enemy,  foreseeing  that  the  pa  must  be  taken  if  this 
plan  of  operation  was  successfully  carried  out,  made  the 
most  strenuous  efforts  to  prevent  it,  but  having  been 
defeated  in  every  encounter,  and  Te  Rauparaha  having 
taken  precautions  to  prevent  future  loss,  they  allowed 
the  saps  to  be  pushed  close  up  to  the  outworks.  So 
soon  as  the  besiegers,  however,  had  piled  the  brushwood 
in  position  it  was  fired  by  the  people  of  the  pa,  the  wind 


at  the  time  blowing  from  the  north-west ;  but  a  sudden 
change  occurring,  both  the  outworks,  as  well  as  the 
general  line  of  defences,  were  soon  enveloped  in  a  mass 
of  flame  and  smoke,  from  which  the  defenders  were 
compelled  to  retreat. 

When  the  palisading  had  thus  been  destroyed,  the 
Xgatitoa  rushed  through  the  burning  ruins,  and  a  general 
massacre  ensued.  Many  endeavoured  to  escape  by 
swimming  across  the  lagoon,  and  some  few  succeeded  in 
doing  so,  whilst  others  were  interrupted  by  bodies  of 
Ngatitoa  detached  for  that  purpose.  The  slaughter  was 
tremendous,  whilst  numbers  of  prisoners  also  fell  into- 
the  hands  of  the  victors.  Some  conception  may  be 
formed  of  the  numbers  slain  and  eaten,  when  I  mention 
that  some  time  after  the  settlement  of  Canterbury  the 
Eev.  Mr.  Eaven,  Incumbent  of  Woodend,  near  the  site 
of  the  pa  in  question,  collected  many  cartloads  of  their 
bones,  and  buried  them  in  a  mound  on  the  side  of  the 
main  road  leading  from  the  present  town  of  Kaiapoi  to  the 
north.  Ghastly  relics  of  these  feasts  still  strew  the  same 
ground,  from  which  I  myself  have  gathered  many. 

Having  thus  captured  the  main  stronghold  of  the 
Ngaitahu,  Te  Eauparaha  sent  detached  parties  of  his 
warriors  to  scour  the  plains  as  far  south  as  the  Eakaia, 
as  well  as  to  ravage  the  villages  on  the  Peninsula, 
by  whom  hundreds  of  the  unfortunate  people  wrere 
slaughtered ;  after  which  he  made  his  way  back  to  the 
shores  of  Cook  Strait,  and  from  thence  to  Kapiti,  laden 
with  spoil,  and  accompanied  by  large  numbers  of 
captives,  some  of  whom  were  kept  in  slavery,  whilst 
others  w7ere  used  in  the  ordinary  manner  in  the  festivities 
by  which  his  triumph  was  celebrated. 




Te  Eauparaha  having  thus  completed  his  design  of 
conquering  the  Middle  Island,  next  turned  his  attention, 
at  the  earnest  request  of  the  Ngatiraukawa,  to  avenging 
•a  defeat  which  the  latter  had  sustained  some  time 
previously  at  the  hands  of  the  tribes  occupying  the  line 
•of  the  Wanganui  Eiver.  In  this  defeat  only  a  few  of 
the  chiefs  had  escaped  the  general  slaughter,  amongst 
whom  were  Te  Puke  and  his  younger  brother  Te  Ao, 
both  of  whom  succeeded  in  making  their  way  to  Kapiti. 

In  consequence  of  this  resolution,  a  war  party  number- 
ing nearly  a  thousand  fighting  men,  under  the  most 
distinguished  chiefs  of  the  three  tribes,  then  united  under 
the  general  leadership  of  Te  Rauparaha,  was  despatched 
to  lay  siege  to  Putikiwaranui,  a  great  pa  of  the  Wanganuis, 
which  was  occupied  and  defended  by  nearly  double  the 
number  of  the  attacking  force.  The  siege  lasted  upwards 
of  two  months,  during  which  many  sorties  were  made, 
but  the  besiegers  maintained  their  ground,  and  ultimately 
carried  the  enemy's  works  by  assault,  slaughtering  an 
immense  number  of  them. 

Turoa  and  Hori  Te  Anaua  (afterwards  known  as  Hori 
KingiJ  the  head  chiefs,  however,  escaped,  but  the  fact 
that  no  attempt  was  even  made  to  avenge  this  serious 
disaster,  is  of  itself  the  strongest  evidence  of  the  power 


of  Te  Eauparaha  and  his  allies,  and  of  the  absurdity  of 
supposing  that  his  occupation  of  the  country  he  had 
conquered  could  for  a  moment  have  been  disturbed  by 
the  remnant  of  the  Ngatiapa,  Eangitane,  and  Muaupoko 
tribes  which  had  still  escaped  the  general  destruction  of 
their  people. 

Soon  after  the  year  1835,  the  great  body  of  the 
Ngatiawa,  under  the  chiefs  E  Puni,  Warepouri,  Wi 
Tako,  and  others,  and  accompanied  by  numbers  of  the 
Taranaki  and  Ngatiruanui  tribes,  came  down  the  coast, 
many  of  them  settling  around  and  to  the  southward 
of  Waikanae,  whilst  others  took  possession  of  Port- 
Nicholson  and  the  Hutt  country,  from  which  they  drove 
the  section  of  the  Ngatikahungunu,  which  up  to  this 
time  had  occupied  those  districts.  This  migration  took 
place  after  the  destruction  of  the  great  Ngatiawa  pa  of 
Pukerangiora,  inland  of  the  Waitara. 

It  appears  that  many  years  before  this  event  the 
Waikato  tribes,  under  Te  Whero  Whero  and  Taiporutu 
(father  of  Waharoa  and  grandfather  of  William  Thompson 
Tarapipi,  so  celebrated  in  connection  with  our  own 
Waikato  wars)  had  suffered  severely  at  the  hands  of  the 
Ngatitama  under  the  leadership  of  Kaeaea,  by  whom 
Taiporutu  was  crucified  in  the  gateway  of  a  pa  defended 
by  this  ruthless  wrarrior.  It  was  indeed  from  this 
circumstance  that  Waharoa  took  his  name,  which 
signifies  the  large  gateway  of  a  pa. 

This  defeat,  as  well  as  that  which  they  had  suffered  at 
the  hands  of  Te  Eauparaha  and  his  allies,  during  the 
migration  of  the  Ngatitoa  from  Kawhia,  naturally 
rankled  in  their  minds,  and  in  one  of  the  intervals  of  the 
wars  of  Te  Waharoa  against  the  Ngatimaru,  he  and  Te 
Whero  Whero  concerted  a  campaign  against  the  Ngatiawa. 

150        THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

There  is  liittle  doubt,  however,  that  but  for  the  great 
superiority  in  the  weapons  of  the  Waikato  force  they 
would  have  thought  twice  before  attacking  their  old  foes, 
who  had  always  been  notorious  for  their  bravery,  and 
who  in  their  frequent  migrations  had  proved  themselves 
more  than  a  match  for  even  the  most  warlike  tribes  to  which 
they  became  opposed.  But  the  possession  of  a  large 
supply  of  fire-arms  gave  to  the  Waikato  chieftains  an 
almost  irresistible  offensive  power,  and  they  did  not 
hesitate,  therefore,  in  attacking  the  Ngatiawa,  even  in 
the  midst  of  their  own  country  and  in  their  principal 

The  pa  was  defended  by  a  large  number  of  warriors, 
and  withstood  for  many  months  the  most  vigorous 
assaults,  only  falling  at  last  after  the  unfortunate 
inhabitants  had  suffered  much  from  famine.  When  taken, 
hundreds  of  prisoners  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  victors, 
and  it  is  related  of  Te  Where  Whero  that  upwards  of  250 
of  them  were  slain  with  his  own  hands,  in  order  that 
they  might  be  prepared  for  the  ovens. 

It  is  said  that,  as  he  sat  on  the  ground  after  the 
assault,  the  unfortunate  wretches  were  one  by  one 
placed  alongside  of  him,  their  heads  within  his  reach, 
and  that  he  despatched  them  successively  with  a  single 
blow  on  the  skull  with  a  celebrated  mere  pounamu, 
afterwards  in  the  possession  of  his  son,  the  Maori  King. 
After  killing  this  great  number  he  threw  the  mere  down, 
exclaiming,  "  I  am  tired,  let  the  rest  live,"  and 
accordingly  their  lives  were  spared,  but  they  were  kept 
in  slavery  until  some  time  after  the  establishment  of  the 
European  settlement  of  New  Plymouth. 

The  heavy  blow  thus  inflicted  upon  the  tribe,  and  the 
fear  of  complete  annihilation,  determined  those  who  still 

THE    STIRRING    TIMES    OF   TE    RAUPARAHA        151 

remained  to  join  Te  Eauparaha  and  the  Ngatiraukawa> 
whose  forces,  thus  increased,  would  be  more  than  a 
match  for  any  war  party  which  the  Waikatos  could 
bring  against  them,  even  if  the  chiefs  of  the  latter  tribes 
felt  disposed  to  carry  hostilities  into  Te  Eauparaha's 
country.  It  appears  that,  shortly  after  the  arrival  of  the 
Ngatiawa  on  the  coast,  they  formed  the  design  of  taking 
possession  of  a  large  part  of  the  country  occupied  by  the 
Ngatiraukawa,  and  particularly  that  in  the  neighbour^ 
hood  and  to  the  north  of  Otaki.  It  would  seem, 
moreover,  that  there  was  dissension  amongst  the 
Ngatitoas  themselves,  a  portion  of  them  taking  part 
with  the  Ngatiawa,  out  of  jealousy  at  some  apparent 
favouritism  extended  by  Te  Eauparaha  to  the  great 
Ngatiawa  chieftains,  and  more  particularly  to  Whatanui, 
whose  relationship  to  Te  Eauparaha,  together  with  his 
high  character  as  a  chief  and  warrior,  gave  him  great 
influence  with  the  latter. 

The  immediate  cause  of  the  fighting  to  which  I  am 
about  to  refer,  however,  was  a  robbery  committed  by  a 
party  of  Ngatiruanui,  who  were  caught  by  the  Ngatirau- 
kawa in  the  very  act  of  plundering  their  potato  pits  near 
Waikawa.  A  conflict  at  once  took  place,  in  which  a 
leading  chief  of  the  Ngatiruanui,  named  Tawhake,  was 
killed,  and  this  led  to  hostilities  being  carried  on  between 
the  two  tribes  at  various  points  on  the  line  of  their 
settlements  between  Manawatu  and  Waikanae.  This 
state  of  affairs  continued  for  a  considerable  time,  the 
forces  engaged  on  each  side  being  numerous  and  well 
armed,  the  result  being  that  large  numbers  were  killed 
on  both  sides. 

Soon  after  this  civil  war  had  commenced  Te  Eauparaha 
who  at  once  saw  the  disastrous  results  which  must 


follow  from  it,  sent  messengers  to  Te  Heuheu,  urging  that 
chief  to  bring  down  a  force  sufficiently  strong  to  enable 
him  to  crush  the  Ngatiruanui,  who  were  the  most 
turbulent  of  the  insurgents,  after  which  he  hoped  to  be 
able  to  bring  about  a  peace  between  the  remainder  of 
the  contending  parties.  He  was  much  grieved,  more- 
over, at  the  dissension  in  his  own  tribe,  part  of  which,  as 
I  have  before  mentioned,  had  joined  the  Ngatiawa 
leaders,  and  had  taken  an  active  part  in  the  numerous 
engagements  which  had  already  occurred.  The  loss  on 
both  sides  had  been  severe,  and  Te  Eauparaha  knew  full 
well  that  he  required  the  whole  strength  at  his  command 
to  maintain  his  position  against  the  Wanganui  and 
Ngatikahungunu  tribes,  who  would  have  been  but  too 
ready  to  attack  him  if  they  saw  any  reasonable  prospect 
of  success. 

In  this  connection,  I  may  observe  at  this  period  the 
shores  of  Cook  Strait  were  frequented  by  numbers  of 
whale  and  other  ships,  and  the  tribes  along  the  coast 
found  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  fire-arms  and  ammuni- 
tion, which  were  the  principal  articles  received  in  barter 
for  flax,  then  largely  used  in  Australia  for  the  manu- 
facture of  wool-lashing.  This  facility  of  obtaining 
European  weapons  placed  the  tribes  in  question  upon  a 
footing  of  comparative  equality  in  their  contests,  and 
Te  Eauparaha  could  no  longer  reckon  upon  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  advantages  which  his  own  earlier 
possession  of  them  had  given  him  in  his  wars,  and  it- 
was,  therefore,  of  the  utmost  moment  to  him  that 
nothing  should  take  place  which  would  tend  to  weaken 
his  influence  or  his  numbers. 

It  was,  therefore,  with  great  satisfaction  that  he 
received  intimation  from  Te  Heuheu  of  his  intention  to 


bring  a  large  force  to  his  aid :  and,  in  effect,  within  two 
or  three  months  after  the  commencement  of  hostilities, 
that  chief,  accompanied  by  other  chiefs  of  note  from 
Maungatautari  and  Taupo,  amongst  whom  were  Tariki 
and  Taonui,  reached  Otaki  with  nearly  800  well-armed 
fighting  men.  No  sooner  had  they  arrived  than  they 
proceeded  to  attack  the  Ngatiawa  at  Horowhenua,  a 
pa  close  to  the  Otaki  Eiver.  But  even  with  this  great 
accession  to  his  forces,  the  contest  raged  for  several 
months  with  varying  success,  the  slaughter  in  some 
instances  being  very  great.  In  one  of  the  battles 
Papaka,  a  favourite  brother  of  Te  Heuheu,  was  killed,  and 
in  another  Te  Tipi,  a  son  of  Te  Eauparaha. 

At  length  a  great  battle  was  fought  at  Pakakutu,  in 
which  the  Ngatiruanui  were  defeated  with  serious  loss, 
their  chief  Takerangi  being  killed  and  their  pa  taken. 
This  battle  put  an  end  to  the  war,  for  soon  afterwards 
the  whole  of  the  leading  chiefs  on  both  sides  met,  and 
upon  the  advice  and  urgent  entreaty  of  Te  Heuheu  and 
Whatanui,  a  peace  was  made,  which  was  not  again 
broken  until  the  fighting  at  Kirititonga,  which  (as  will  be 
mentioned  in  the  sequel)  took  place  on  the  day  before 
the  arrival  of  the  "  Tory." 

Immediately  after  peace  had  been  solemnly  ratified 
the  parties  divided,  the  Ngatiraukawa  proceeding  to 
re-occupy  their  former  settlements  around  Ohau  and 
Horowhenua,  and  also  the  district  between  the  Mana- 
watu  and  Rangitikei  Rivers,  whilst  the  Ngatiawa  retired 
below  Waikanae,  occupying  the  various  points,  including 
Port  Nicholson,  in  which  they  were  ultimately  found  by 
the  Agent  of  the  New  Zealand  Company. 

Te  Rauparaha,  however,  was  so  much  grieved  at  what 
had  taken  place,  and  more  particularly  at  the  defection 

154        THE    STIRLING   TIMES    OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

of  that  part  of  his  own  tribe  which  had  joined  the 
Ngatiawa  during  the  recent  struggle,  that  he  determined 
to  accompany  Te  Heuheu  back  to  Maungatautari,  and 
settle  there  for  the  remainder  of  his  days.  In  pursu- 
ance of  this  resolve,  he  collected  his  more  immediate 
followers  and  proceeded  as  far  as  Ohau,  where,  however, 
he  was  overtaken  by  messengers  from  Otaki  and  Kapiti, 
urging  him  to  abandon  his  resolution  and  to  remain  with 
his  people.  In  this  request  they  were  joined  by  Te 
Heuheu,  and  after  much  discussion  and  persuasion  he 
consented  to  their  request,  returning  to  Kapiti,  after 
taking  leave  of  his  great  ally. 

This  was  the  last  great  struggle  in  which  Te  Rauparaha 
was  engaged,  but  it  seems  that  during  the  intervals  of 
rest  between  his  various  more  important  undertakings, 
he  was  ever  mindful  of  the  treacherous  attempt  of  the 
Muaupoko  to  murder  him,  and  of  the  actual  slaughter  of 
his  children,  and  had  unceasingly  persecuted  the 
remnant  of  this  tribe,  until  at  last  they,  as  well  as  the 
Ngatiapa  and  Eangitane,  sought  the  protection  of  Te 
Whatanui.  In  the  words  of  Te  Kepa  Eangihiwinui 
(better  known  as  Major  Kemp),  son  of  Tunguru,  one  of 
the  chiefs  of  the  Muaupoko,  who  had  been  concerned  in 
the  murder,  "Whatanui  took  them  under  his  protection, 
and  promised  that  nothing  should  reach  them  but  the 
rain  from  heaven;"  meaning  that  he  would' stand 
between  them  and  the  long-nursed  and  ever-burning 
wrath  of  Eauparaha. 

The  latter  unwillingly  yielded  to  the  wishes  of  his 
great  kinsman,  and  from  that  time  ceased  directly  to 
molest  these  unfortunate  people,  who  were  suffered 
again  to  occupy  part  of  their  original  territory  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Lake  Horowhenua ;  not  as  a  tribe, 


however,  but  simply  in  the  character  of  tributaries,  if 
not  actual  slaves,  to  Whatanui.  In  the  words  of  Matene 
Te  Whiwhi,  "  Te  Eauparaha  was  anxious  to  exterminate 
the  Muaupoko,  but  Whatanui  interfered.  Some  had  been 
taken  prisoners,  but  others  were  living  dispersed  in  the 
mountains.  When  they  came  to  Horowhenua,  they 
came  like  wild  dogs ;  if  they  had  been  seen,  they  would 
have  been  caught  and  killed.  There  was  one  there,  a 
woman  of  rank  whose  possessions  had  covered  all  Otaki, 
and  who  had  been  a  slave  of  mine.  She  was  the  wife  of 
Te  Kooku.  They  had  been  taken  but  not  killed." 

But  it  is  clear,  nevertheless,  that  although  Te 
Eauparaha  refrained  from  directly  molesting  them,  he 
was  not  unwilling  to  join  in  any  indirect  attempt  to 
exterminate  them,  for  we  find  that  on  one  occasion  Wi 
Tako,  in  conjunction  with  some  of  the  Ngatitoa  chiefs, 
having  been  instigated  by  Te  Eauparaha  to  do  so,  invited 
the  whole  Muaupoko  people  to  a  great  feast  to  be  held  at 
Ohariu — upon  some  one  of  the  numerous  pretexts  which 
the  Maoris  knew  so  well  how  to  use  for  engaging  in  festiv- 
ities, it  having  been  arranged  beforehand  that  these 
guests  should  all  be  murdered  and  eaten. 

The  bait  took,  notwithstanding  the  advice  of  Whatanui, 
who,  distrusting  the  reasons  assigned  for  the  festival, 
cautioned  the  Muaupoko  not  to  attend,  predicting  some 
disaster  to  them.  Notwithstanding  this  caution,  up- 
wards of  150  attended  the  festival,  all  of  whom  were 
slaughtered,  and  their  bodies  duly  consigned  to  the 
ovens  ;  but  this  was  the  last  great  act  of  slaughter  of  the 
kind  which  took  place. 

Shortly  after  the  close  of  the  civil  war  to  which  I 
have  lately  alluded,  a  section  of  the  Ngatiawa  tribe, 
known  as  the  Ngatimutunga,  which  had  taken  up  their 


quarters  in  Port  Nicholson,  chartered  the  English 
brig  "Rodney"  to  carry  them  down  to  the  Chatham 
Islands,  which  had  been  reported  to  them  by  a  member 
of  their  hapu,  who  had  visited  the  islands  in  a  whaling 
ship,  as  being  thickly  peopled  with  an  unwarlike  and 
plump-looking  race,  who  would  fall  an  easy  prey  to  such 
experienced  warriors  as  his  own  people.  This  occurred 
about  the  year  1836,  and  within  less  than  two  years  after 
the  expedition  reached  the  islands  the  aboriginal  in- 
habitants were  reduced  from  1500  to  fewer  than  200 
people,  the  greater  number  having  been  devoured  by 
their  conquerors.  In  one  of  the  cases  in  the  Wellington 
Museum  may  be  seen  a  bone  spear,  which  formerly 
belonged  to  Mokungatata,  one  of  the  leading  chiefs  of 
the  Ngatimutunga,  who  was  known  to  have  lived  for  a 
considerable  time  almost  exclusively  on  the  flesh  of 
young  children,  as  many  as  six  of  them  being  sometimes 
cooked  in  order  to  feast  himself  and  his  friends. 

Harking  back  to  the  division  of  Te  Eauparaha's  forces, 
just  before  he  left  D'Urville  Island  for  the  purpose  of 
attacking  the  Kaikoura  Pa,  that  portion  that  remained 
under  the  leadership  of  Niho,  Takerei,  Te  Koihua  and 
Te  Puoho,  proceeded  to  attack  the  settlements  of  the 
Rangitane  and  Ngatiapa  in  Blind  and  Massacre  Bays, 
which  they  entirely  destroyed.  Te  Koihua  settled  near 
Pakawau,  in  Massacre  Bay,  where  I  frequently  saw  the 
old  man,  prior  to  his  death.  Strange  to  say,  his  love  for 
greenstone  was  so  great  that  even  after  he  and  his  wife 
had  both  reached  a  very  advanced  age,  they  travelled 
down  the  West  Coast  in  1858,  then  a  very  arduous  task, 
and  brought  back  a  large  rough  slab  of  that  substance, 
which  they  proceeded  diligently  to  reduce  to  the  form  of 
a  mere. 


Niho  and  Takerei,  leaving  Te  Koihua  in  Massacre  Bay 
at  the  time  of  their  original  incursion,  proceeded  down 
the  coast  as  far  as  the  Hokitika  Eiver,  killing  and  taking 
prisoners  nearly  all  the  existing  inhabitants.  Amongst 
the  prisoners  was'Tuhuru,  who  was  afterwards  ransomed 
by  the  Ngaitahu  for  a  celebrated  mere  called  Kai  Kanohi, 
now  in  the  possession  of  the  descendants  of  Matenga  Te 

Niho  and  Takerei  settled  at  the  mouth  of  the  Grey, 
whilst  detached  parties  occupied  various  points  along  the 
coast,  both  to  the  north  and  south  of  that  river.  I  do 
not  think  it  necessary  to  refer  in  any  detail  to  the  events 
which  took  place  between  the  Horowhenua  war  and  the 
arrival  of  the  "  Tory  "  with  Colonel  Wakefield  in  1839. 

On  the  16th  November  in  that  year  this  ship  reached 
Kapiti,  and  Colonel  Wakefield  was  informed  that  a 
sanguinary  battle  had  just  been  fought  near  Waikanae 
on  that  morning  between  large  forces  of  the  Ngatiawa  on 
the  one  side,  and  of  Ngatiraukawa  on  the  other.  This 
fight  is  commonly  known  as  the  kirititonga,  and  was 
caused  by  the  renewal,  at  the  funeral  obsequies 
of  Te  Bauparaha's  sister  Waitohi,  of  the  land  feuds 
between  the  two  tribes.  The  forces  engaged  were  large, 
and  the  killed  on  both  sides  numbered  nearly  eighty, 
whilst  considerable  numbers  were  wounded.  Te  Eaupa- 
raha  himself  took  no  part  in  the  battle,  reaching  the 
scene  of  action  after  the  repulse  of  the  Ngatiraukawa, 
and  narrowly  escaping  death  by  swimming  off  to  his 
canoe,  his  retreat  being  covered  by  a  vigorous  rally  on 
the  part  of  his  allies.  This  was  the  last  contest  which 
occurred  between  the  natives  along  the  coast  in  question, 
the  arrival  of  the  European  settlers  entirely  changing  the 
aspect  of  affairs. 


I  need  not  here  detail  the  arrangements  made  by 
Colonel  Wakefield  for  the  purchase  of  the  country  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Wellington,  and  along  the  coast  to  the 
northward, . but  it  is  worth  while  to  extract  from  E.  J. 
Wakefield's  "  Adventures  in  New  Zealand  "  the  account 
he  gives  of, the  Colonel's  first  meeting  with  Te  Rauparaha, 
of  the  appearance  of  the  latter,  and  of  the  impression 
which  he  made  upon  his  European  visitors. 

"  We  had  just  made  up  a  boat's  crew,"  he  says,  "from 
the  cabin  party,  to  go  over  and  see  the  field  of  battle,  the 
surgeons  taking  their  instruments  with  them,  when  a 
message  arrived  from  Te  Rauparaha.  He  was  on  Evans 
Island,  the  nearest  to  the  ship  of  the  three  islets,  and 
expressed  a  desire  to  see  Colonel  Wakefield.  We  there- 
fore pulled  round  and  went  to  see  him.  He  had  just 
returned  from  the  scene  of  bloodshed,  whither  he  asserted 
that  he  had  gone  to  restore  peace  ;  and  seeing  the  arrival 
of  our  ship,  which  was  taken  for  a  man-of-war  by  many 
even  of  the  Europeans,  he  had  betaken  himself,  with  all 
his  goods,  to  the  residence  of  an  English  whaler,  named 
Thomas  Evans,  on  whom  he  relied  for  protection  from 
some  imaginary  danger. 

"  We  had  heard,  while  in  Cloudy  Bay,  that  Te 
Eauparaha  had  expressed  himself  in  somewhat  violent 
terms  towards  us  for  purchasing  Port  Nicholson  without 
his  sanction  ;  and  he  was  described  by  the  whalers  as 
giving  way  to  great  alarm  when  told  what  the  ship  was, 
and  as  having  inquired  anxiously  what  natives  we  had  on 
board.  As  we  leaped  from  our  boat  he  advanced  to  meet 
us,  and,  with  looks  of  evident  fear  and  mistrust,  eagerly 
sought  our  hands  to  exchange  the  missionary  greeting. 

"  During  the  whole  of  the  ensuing  conversation  he 
seemed  uneasy  and  insecure  in  his  own  opinion,  and  the 

THE    STIBEING   TIMES    OF    TE   EAUPAEAHA         159 

whalers  present  described  this  behaviour  as  totally  at  vari- 
ance with  his  usual  boastfulness  and  arrogance.  He  made 
us  a  pious  speech  about  the  battle,  saying  that  he  had  had 
no  part  in  it,  and  that  he  was  determined  to  give  no 
encouragement  to  fighting.  He  agreed  to  come  on  board 
the  next  day,  and  departed  to  one  of  the  neighbouring 

"  He  is  rather  under  the  average  height,  and  very 
dignified  and  stately  in  his  manner,  although  on  this 
occasion  it  was  much  affected  by  the  wandering  and 
watchful  glances  which  he  frequently  threw  around  him, 
as  though  distrustful  of  everyone.  Although  at  least 
sixty  years,  old  he  might  have  passed  for  a  much  younger 
man,  being  hale  and  stout,  and  his  hair  but  slightly 
grizzled.  His  features  are  aquiline  and  striking,  but  an 
overhanging  upper  lip,  and  a  retreating  forehead  on 
which  his  eyebrows  wrinkled  back  when  he  lifted  his 
deep  sunken  eyelids  and  penetrating  eyes,  produced  a 
fatal  effect  on  the  good  prestige  arising  from  his  first 
appearance.  The  great  chieftain,  the  man  able  to  lead 
others,  and  habituated  to  wield  authority,  was  clear  at 
first  sight ;  but  the  savage  ferocity  of  the  tiger,  who 
would  not  scruple  to  use  any  means  for  the  attainment 
of  that  power,  the  destructive  ambition  of  a  selfish 
despot,  was  plainly  discernible  on  a  nearer  view. 

"Innumerable  accounts  have  been  related  to  me  of  Te 
Rauparaha's  unbounded  treachery.  No  sacrifice  of* 
honour  or  feeling  seems  to  have  been  too  great  for  him, 
if  conducive  to  his  own  aggrandizement  or  security.  He 
has  been  known  to  throw  one  of  his  own  men  overboard 
in  order  to  lighten  his  canoe  when  pursued  by  the 
enemy,  and  he  had  slaughtered  one  of  his  own  slaves  at 
the  late  feast  at  Mana  to  appear  opulent  in  the  eyes  of 

160        THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OF   TE    RAUPARAHA 

his  assembled  guests.  This  was  one  of  the  poor, 
submissive,  hard-working  tributaries  whom  we  had  seen 
at  the  Pelorus. 

"  In  his  intercourse  with  the  white  whalers  and  traders 
and  the  shipping  in  the  Strait,  he  had  universally  dis- 
tinguished himself  by  the  same  qualities.  By  dint  of 
cringing  and  fawning  upon  those  who  showed  power  and 
inclination  to  resist  his  constant  extortions,  and  the  most 
determined  insolence  and  bullying  towards  those  whom 
he  knew  to  be  at  his  mercy,  he  succeeded  in  obtaining  a 
large  revenue  from  the  white  population,  whether 
transient  or  permanent,  which  he  invariably  applied  to 
the  extension  of  bis  power  among  the  natives. 

"  He  was  always  accompanied  in  these  marauding 
excursions,  which  he  frequently  extended  over  to  Cloudy 
Bay  and  Queen  Charlotte  Sound,  by  Eangihaeata,  who 
had  become  his  inseparable  companion  since  his  rise  in 
authority.  Their  respective  stations  were  pithily 
described  by  one  of  the  whalers,  who  told  us  that  '  the 
Eobullar '  as  he  mispronounced  his  name,  '  cast  the 
bullets,  and  the  Eangihaeata  shot  them.'  Te  Eauparaha 
was  the  mind,  and  his  mate  the  body,  on  these  blackmail 
gathering  rounds.  They  had  both  acquired  a  violent 
taste  for  grog,  and  this,  with  fire-arms  and  powder,  were 
the  principal  articles  demanded." 

Such  is  the  account  given  by  a  writer,  by  no  means 
favourable  to  Te  Eauparaha,  of  the  impressions  he  had 
formed  of  the  chief  upon  their  first  interview,  and 
although  in  some  respects  the  picture  he  draws  is  not  a 
favourable  one,  we  may  clearly  see  that  its  worst  features 
are  owing  to  the  intercourse  of  Te  Eauparaha  with  the 
class  of  European  traders  who  then  frequented  the  coast. 
Master  as  he  was  of  all  the  treacherous  arts  practised  by 


the  Maori  warrior,  and  ruthlessly  as  his  designs  were 
carried  out,  and  fearful  as  the  results  may  have  been,  it 
must  be  remembered  that  he  was  doing  no  more  than  his 
great  countrymen,  E  Hongi,  Waharoa,  Te  Whero  Whero, 
and  other  leading  chiefs  who,  during  the  same  period, 
carried  on  wars  in  various  parts  of  the  islands. 

Those  who  knew  Te  Whero  Whero  Potatau  will  recall 
the  peculiar  dignity  of  his  manner,  and  certainly  no 
one  would  have  supposed  that  the  tall,  graceful-looking 
man  in  the  full  dress  of  an  English  gentleman,  who 
conversed  with  quiet  ease  with  those  whom  he  met  in 
the  drawing-rooms  of  Government  House,  at  Auckland, 
was  the  same  person  as  the  savage  who  sat  naked  on 
the  ground  at  Pukerangiora  smashing  the  skulls  of 
hundreds  of  defenceless  prisoners,  until  he  was  almost 
smothered  with  blood  and  brains. 

Nor  can  I  believe  that  Te  Eauparaha  was  ever  guilty 
of  the  treacherous  conduct  towards  his  own  people  with 
which  he  is  charged  by  Mr.  Wakefield.  Their  love  and 
respect  for  him  were  very  great,  and  the  influence  he 
acquired  with  such  men  as  Te  Heuheu  and  Whatanui 
indicates  that  he  possessed  the  highest  qualities  as  a 

I  had  not  intended  to  carry  my  story  beyond  the 
arrival  of  the  "  Tory,"  but  I  think  it  is  as  well  to  give 
Te  Eauparaha's  own  view  of  the  disastrous  affair  at  the 
Wairau  in  1843,  and  of  its  results  as  related  to  me  by 
his  son. 

"  I  will  now,"  he  says,  "  leave  my  account  of  the 
battles  of  Te  Eauparaha  at  this  end  of  the  island,  and 
speak  of  the  folly  of  the  Europeans  and  Maoris  at 
Wairau,  where  Wakefield  met  his  death.  The  fight,  and 
death  of  Wakefield  and  the  other  European  gentlemen 

162        THE    STIRRING   TIMES   OP   TE    RAUPARAHA 

in  1843,  were  caused  by  the  deceit  of  Captain  Piringa- 
tapu  (anglice  Blenkinsopp).  He  deceived  Te  Eauparaha 
in  giving  him  a  big  gun  for  the  purchase  of  Wairau.  He 
wrote  some  documents  in  English,  which  said  that  he 
had  bought  that  land.  Te  Eauparaha  did  not  know 
what  was  in  those  documents,  and  signed  his  name  in 
ignorance.  Captain  Piringatapu  told  Te  Eauparaha  that 
when  he  saw  the  captain  of  a  man-of-war  he  was  to  show 
him  the  documents  that  he  might  know  that  they  were 
chiefs.  Te  Eauparaha  thought  that  it  was  all  correct. 

"  When  Te  Eauparaha  returned  from  Cloudy  Bay,  near 
Wairau,  he  gave  the  documents  to  Hawea*  to  read ; 
when  he  had  read  them,  he  told  Te  Eauparaha  that  all 
his  land  at  Wairau  had  passed  away  to  Captain  Piringa- 
tapu, and  that  he  had  received  a  big  gun  for  it.  Te 
Eauparaha  was  angry,  and  tore  up  the  documents  and 
threw  them  in  the  fire,  also  the  documents  held  by  the 
chiefs  of  Ngatitoa  at  Kapiti,  and  Ngatitoa  of  the  other 

"  When  Wakefield  arrived,  and  the  settlements  of  Nel- 
son and  Wellington  were  formed,  he  (Wakefield)  went  to 
Wairau  for  the  purpose  of  surveying.  Te  Eauparaha 
did  not  consent,  as  he  had  not  been  paid  for  it,  since  he 
had  been  deceived  by  Captain  Piringatapu.  Te  Eaupa- 
raha's  thought  was  that  the  land  ought  not  to  be  taken 
by  Wakefield,  but  that  they  should  consider  the  matter 
before  the  land  was  handed  over.  Trouble  and  wrong 
was  caused  by  the  hurried  attack  of  Wakefield  and  party 
upon  Te  Eauparaha.  Te  Eauparaha  has  told  me  a  good 
deal  about  this  matter.  It  was  not  his  desire  that  the 
Europeans  should  be  killed  :  his  love  to  Wakefield  and 
party  was  great.  Eangihaeata,  Te  Eauparaha's  nephew, 

*  Hawea,  or  Hawes,  was  a  European  trader  [residing  at  Kapiti  at  the 
time  of  the  transaction. 



was  misled  by  his   own  foolish   thought    and   want  of 
attention  to  what  Te  Eauparaha  had  said. 

"  When  Wakefield  and  party  were  dead,  Eauparaha 
rose  and  said,  '  Hearken  Te  Eangihaeata,  I  will  now 
leave  you  as  you  have  set  aside  my  tikanga,  let  those  of 
the  Europeans  who  have  been  killed  suffice ;  let  the 
others  live,  do  not  kill  them.'  Eangihaeata  replied, 
'  What  about  your  daughter  that  has  been  killed  ?  '  Te 

Porirua  Bay. 

Eauparaha  replied,  '  Why  should  not  that  daughter  die  ?  ' 
Te  Eauparaha  also  said, '  Now  I  will  embrace  Christianity, 
and  turn  to  God,  who  has  preserved  me  from  the  hands 
of  the  Europeans.'  This  was  the  time  when  he 
embraced  Christianity. 

"  I  was  absent  when  the  fight  took  place  at  Wairau, 
having  gone  to  preach  to  Ngaitahu.  I  went  as  far  as 
Eakaia.  I  was  there  one  year,  and  was  the  first  person 
that  went  there  to  preach.  It  was  on  this  account  that 

164        THE    STIRRING    TIMES    OF    TE    RAUPAEAHA 

my  father  did  not  go  there  to  fight.  When  Eangihaeata 
again  occasioned  trouble  to  the  Europeans  at  the  Hutt, 
Te  Eauparaha  was  sad  at  the  folly  of  Rangihaeata  in 
withholding  the  land  that  had  been  purchased  from  him 
and  Te  Eangihaeata  by  the  Europeans  for  £200.  Te 
Eauparaha  endeavoured  to  persuade  Eangihaeata  to 
cease  causing  trouble  about  that  land,  but  he  would  not 

"Te  Eauparaha  wras  afterwards  taken  prisoner  by 
Governor  Grey  at  Porirua  without  sufficient  pretext.  The 
following  is  the  reason  why  he  was  taken  :  A  letter  was 
written  by  some  one,  to  which  the  name  of  Te  Eauparaha 
was  signed ;  it  was  then  sent  to  the  chiefs  of  Patutokotoku 
at  Wanganui.  It  is  said  that  Mamaku  and  Eangihaeata 
wrote  the  letter  and  signed  the  name  of  Te  Eauparaha  to 
give  it  force.  I  was  at  school  at  this  time  with  Bishop 
Selwyn  at  Auckland,  together  with  my  wife  Euth,  and 
did  not  see  the  capture  of  my  father. 

"  When  I  returned  and  arrived  in  Wellington,  I  went 
on  board  the  '  Calliope,'  the  man-of-war  in  which  my 
father  was  a  prisoner,  to  see  him.  When  I  saw  him  we 
cried  together,  and  when  we  finished  he  said  to  me, 
Son,  go  to  your  tribes  and  tell  them  to  remain  in  peace. 
Do  not  pay  for  my  arrest  with  evil,  only  with  that  which 
is  good.  You  must  love  the  Europeans.  There  was  no 
just  cause  for  my  having  been  arrested  by  Governor 
Grey.  I  have  not  murdered  any  Europeans,  but  I  was 
arrested  through  the  lies  of  the  people.  If  I  had  been 
taken  prisoner  in  battle,  it  would  have  been  well,  but  I 
was  unjustly  taken.' 

"  I  returned  on  shore  with  Matene  and  went  to  Porirua, 
and  there  saw  Ngatitoa  and  Eawhiri  Puaha.  We  told 
them  the  words  of  Te  Eauparaha  respecting  good  and 
our  living  at  peace.  We  then  went  on  to  Otaki  and 

THE    STIRRING   TIMES    OF   TE    RAUPARAHA         165 

Interior  of  the  Church  at  Otaki. 

166        THE    STIRRING    TIMES   OP   TE   RAUPARAHA 

repeated  the  same  words.  At  this  time  we  (two)  caused 
the  town  of  Hadfield  to  be  built  at  Otaki.  From  this 
time  Ngatiraukawa  came  to  Ngatiwakatere  at  Manawatu 
— this  was  the  tribe  that  befriended  Eangihaeata — 200 
of  the  tribe  came  on  to  Otaki,  and  when  they  arrived  we 

"  Rangihaeata  invited  these  people  that  they  might 
know  the  thoughts  of  Matene  and  myself  respecting 
Te  Eauparaha,  who  was  held  as  a  captive  on  board  the 
vessel.  He  wished  to  destroy  Wellington  and  kill  the 
Europeans  as  a  satisfaction.  I  told  them  the  words  of 
Te  Rauparaha  when  we  (two)  went  to  see  them  (i.e.,  the 
chiefs)  and  the  young  men.  I  told  them  they  must  put 
an  end  to  this  foolish  desire,  and  not  hearken  to  the 
tikanga  of  Rangihaeata,  but  that  they  must  live  in  peace 
and  cease  that  bad  desire.  They  consented.  The 
Ngatiraukawa  consented  to  build  that  town,  that  they 
might  obtain  a  name. 

"When  Te  Rauparaha  was  liberated  in  the  year  1846, 
he  urged  Ngatiraukawa  to  build  a  large  church  in 
Hadfield  Town,  at  Otaki.  Had  he  not  returned,  the 
church  would  not  have  been  built.  He  had  a  great 
desire  to  worship  the  great  God.  He  was  continually 
worshipping  until  he  died  at  Otaki  on  the  27th 
November,  1849." 

Such  is  the  history  of  the  life  and  times  of  a  very 
remarkable  man,  and  of  habits  and  customs  which  have 
already  become  so  much  things  of  the  past  that  in  the 
course  of  another  generation  there  will  be  scarcely  an 
aboriginal  native  left  who  will  have  the  slightest 
knowledge  of  them.  Indeed,  the  memory  of  the  events 
I  have  related  is  already  becoming  indistinct,  even  to 
those  of  the  principal  actors  in  these  events  who  are 
still  living. 


BY  THE  REV.  J.  W.  STACK. 




THE  pa  of  Kaiapoi,  after  which  the  English  town 
of  that  name  in  the  Provincial  District  of  Canterbury  is 
called,  was  the  chief  fortress  and  stronghold  of  the 
Maori  tribe  of  Ngaitahu ;  and  the  story  of  its  siege  and 
capture  by  a  hostile  force  from  the  North  Island,  under 
the  command  of  the  famous  warrior  chief,  Te  Rauparaha, 
forms  the  most  important  chapter  in  the  modern  history 
of  the  natives  residing  in  the  South  Island  of  New 
Zealand.  The  facts  narrated  in  the  following  pages 
were  told  the  writer  more  than  thirty  years  ago,  by 
persons  who  had  either  taken  part  in  the  defence  of  the 
pa,  or  had  once  resided  within  its  walls. 

The  growth  and  development  of  the  English  com- 
munity in  this  country  has  been  so  rapid  that  only  a 
small  percentage  of  persons  in  it  have  any  conception  of 
the  marvellous  change  which  has  taken  place  in  the 
appearance  of  New  Zealand,  and  in  the  character  of  its 
inhabitants  within  the  short  period  of  sixty  years.  No 


one  passing  to-day  through  the  busy  towns,  and  along 
the  well-kept  highways  and  railroads,  which  traverse 
a  country  studded  in  all  directions  with  comfortable 
homesteads,  surrounded  by  cornfields  and  well-stocked 
pastures,  could  imagine  that  persons  still  living  have 
only  to  close  their  eyes  to  the  scenes  around  them  to 
enable  them  to  recall  to  mind  the  appearance  of  the 
country  when  there  was  not  a  sign  of  civilized  life  to  be 
found  anywhere  within  a  thousand  miles  of  it,  when 
everything  was  in  a  state  of  nature,  and  the  only  people 
to  be  seen  were  fierce,  untamed  barbarians. 

No  two  parts  of  the  world  were  then  more  unlike  each 
other  than  highly  cultivated,  highly  civilized  England 
and  wild,  uncouth,  barbaric  New  Zealand ;  they  had 
nothing  in  common ;  the  physical  features  of  both 
countries,  the  vegetation,  the  animal  life,  and  the 
people  were  altogether  different.  But  so  rapid  has  been 
the  process  of  transformation,  that  persons  who  have 
come  to  these  shores  within  the  last  twenty-five  years 
have  found  everything  about  them  so  like  what  they  left 
behind  in  the  Old  World,  that  the  change  of  residence 
has  proved  to  them  more  like  a  removal  from  one 
English  county  to  another  than  removal  to  a  foreign 
land.  Seeing  no  traces  anywhere  around  them  of 
barbarism,  they  have  failed  to  realise  that  things  have 
not  always  been  here  what  they  are  now  ;  that  whilst 
the  barbaric  age  is  separated  from  the  civilization  of 
Europe  by  an  interval  of  nearly  two  thousand  years, 
it  is  separated  from  the  colonists  of  New  Zealand 
only  by  the  short  period  of  sixty ;  and  that,  in  this 
short  period,  the  pioneer  settlers  have  passed  through 
all  the  phases  of  experience,  from  barbarism  to  a  high 
state  of  civilization.  We  have  only  to  compare  the 


Kaiapoi  of  the  present  with  the  Kaiapoi  of  the  near 
past  to  realise  this  fact. 

The  Kaiapoi  of  to-day  is  a  borough  town,  twelve  miles 
north  of  the  city  of  Christchurch,  presided  over  by  a 
mayor  and  councillors,  and  is  the  centre  of  a  large 
and  flourishing  agricultural  district.  The  site  of  the 
town  was  fixed  upon  in  1853  ;  but  the  first  building,, 
which  was  a  thatched  cottage  of  wattle  and  daub,  was 
not  put  up  till  1855.  Since  that  date  hundreds  of 
substantial  dwellings  have  been  erected,  and  the  popu- 
lation of  the  town  and  neighbourhood,  which  is  entirely 
European,  has  grown  from  one  inhabitant  to  five 
thousand.  The  main  trunk  line  of  railway  passes  through 
the  town,  and  the  telegraph  puts  the  place  in  communica- 
tion with  all  parts  of  the  world. 

Shops  of  various  kinds  and  hotels  are  found  in  the 
main  thoroughfares,  as  well  as  warehouses  for  the  storage 
of  grain,  and  wool,  and  other  produce,  which  is  either 
exported  by  rail  or  by  water  in  coasting  vessels,  which 
can  easily  load  at  the  wharves  along  the  bank  of  the 
river  that  flows  through  the  centre  of  the  town.  The 
river  is  spanned  by  two  bridges,  one  for  wheel  traffic 
and  the  other  for  foot-passengers.  The  most  conspicuous 
public  buildings  are  the  churches  belonging  to  the 
Anglican,  Presbyterian,  Wesleyan,  and  Eoman  Catholic 
communions,  the  Borough  Schools,  the  Oddfellows' 
Hall,  the  Masonic  Hall,  the  Bank,  the  Eesident 
Magistrate's  Court,  Borough  Council  Chamber,  a  Library 
of  several  thousand  volumes,  the  Drill  Shed,  and  the 
Fire  Brigade  Station. 

But  the  largest  building  of  all  is  the  woollen  factory, 
on  which  the  welfare  of  the  town  mainly  depends. 
It  occupies  a  very  picturesque  situation  on  the  banks 



of  the  Cam,  and  covers  a  large  space  of  ground,  having 
attained  to  its  present  dimensions  from  very  small 
beginnings.  It  was  started  in  1866  for  the  preparation 
of  the  fibre  of  native  flax,  which  grew  over  thousands 
of  acres  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  ;  but  as  it  did 
not  prove  a  paying  concern,  it  was  converted,  in  1873, 
into  a  flannel  and  blanket  factory.  It  changed  hands 
for  the  third  time  in  1880,  when  the  range  of  its 
operations  was  very  greatly  extended.  The  newest 

The  Kaiapoi  Woollen  Factory. 

machinery  was  imported  from  Home,  and  the  manu- 
facture of  every  kind  of  woollen  fabric  undertaken. 
Being  in  a  position  to  secure  the  choicest  kinds  of  New 
Zealand  wool,  the  managers  of  the  Kaiapoi  factory  are 
able  to  turn  out  as  good  work  as  any  of  the  looms  in  the 
Old  Country.  The  mill  uses  up  about  1,300,000  Ibs.  of 
wool  during  the  year,  and  employs  285  hands  on  the 
premises,  and  510  in  the  clothing  factory  at  Christchurch. 
The  borough  adjoins  the  Native  Keserve  of  Kaiapoi, 
on  which  the  Maoris  reside.  This  Reserve  contains  two 


thousand  six  hundred  and  forty  acres,  and  forms  part  of 
the  land  which  the  Maoris  reserved  for  their  exclusive 
use,  when  in  1848  they  conveyed  upwards  of  twenty 
million  acres  to  the  Crown  for  the  small  sum  of  two 
thousand  pounds,  an  amount  which  was  afterwards 
slightly  added  to.  Six  hundred  acres  in  the  centre  of 
this  block  was  covered  at  that  time  with  fine  forest 
trees,  consisting  mostly  of  black  and  white  pine,  and 

When  the  existence  of  this  forest  became  generally 
known  to  the  colonists,  many  persons  who  were  in 
search  of  employment  purchased  from  the  Maoris  the 
right  to  use  the  timber,  and  for  many  years  a  brisk  trade 
was  carried  on  in  building  and  fencing  materials,  and 
firewood — about  two  hundred  sawyers  being  engaged  in 
it,  besides  a  large  number  of  bullock-draymen,  and  sea- 
faring people  who  were  employed  in  conveying  the 
timber  to  Lyttelton  and  Christchurch. 

Before  the  days  of  wool  and  grain,  it  was  the  timber 
from  the  Maori  Bush  which  supported  the  township 
of  Kaiapoi.  For  many  years  past  there  has  not  been  a 
tree,  or  even  a  stump  to  mark  the  site  of  the  forest, 
which  is  now  the  richest  arable  land,  yielding  as  much 
as  sixty  bushels  of  wheat  to  the  acre.  Every  tree 
was  cut  down,  and  the  stumps  and  roots  were  all 
removed  for  firewood,  the  high  price  obtainable  for 
fuel  making  their  removal  profitable. 

The  Maoris  held  their  land  in  common  till  1860,  when 
it  was  divided  amongst  them,  each  man  receiving  a 
section  of  fourteen  acres  which  was  Crown-granted  to 
him.  For  a  time  some  of  them  farmed  their  sections, 
employing  Europeans  to  do  all  the  work  from  the 
fencing  in  of  the  ground  to  the  grinding  of  the  corn 


grown  upon  it,  the  money  to  pay  them  for  their  labour 
being  obtained  by  the  sale  of  some  part  of  the  bush. 
But  when  this  source  of  revenue  was  exhausted  they  had 
nothing  to  pay  wages  with,  and  so  the  Maoris  took  to 
leasing  their  sections  to  Europeans,  receiving  at  first 
a  rental  of  about  five  shillings  an  acre ;  but  competition 
has  improved  the  letting  value  of  their  land,  for  which 
they  now  receive  an  average  rental  of  thirty  shillings 
an  acre. 

About  the  same  time  that  the  sub-division  of  the  land 
took  place,  the  Church  Mission  Station  was  formed  at 
St.  Stephens,  the  site  being  chosen  near  the  centre  of  the 
reserve.  Gradually  the  Maoris  moved  from  the  vicinity 
of  the  English  township  where  they  were  settled,  along 
the  banks  of  the  Cam,  and  built  their  houses  round  the 
Church  and  Boarding  School,  where  they  formed  a 
village,  the  counterpart  of  the  neighbouring  English 
hamlets.  They  were  satisfied  at  first  with  anything 
in  the  shape  of  a  wreather- board  house,  but  as  soon 
as  the  settlers  around  them  began  to  improve  the  style  of 
their  residences  the  Maoris  copied  their  example,  sub- 
mitting to  great  privations  in  order  to  procure  the 
necessary  funds  wherewith  to  make  the  desired  improve- 
ments, often  pledging  their  rents — which  furnished  their 
only  source  of  income — for  years  for  the  purpose. 

One  old  gentleman  who  found  great  difficulty  in 
procuring  enough  money  to  secure  the  erection  of  his 
house,  having  got  together  in  the  course  of  a  few  years 
the  sum  of  forty  pounds,  proceeded  to  interview  all  the 
builders  in  the  Christchurch  district,  hoping  to  induce 
one  of  them  to  put  up  a  dwelling  house  for  that  sum  ; 
but  as  he  insisted  that  it  should  contain  a  "parlour 
room,"  with  a  fire-place,  and  that  the  building  should  be 


match-lined  throughout,  and  varnished,  and  painted,  he 
could  never  come  to  terms  with  any  of  them,  and  had  to 
content  himself  at  last  with  such  a  house  as  he  could  get 
put  up  by  a  journeyman  carpenter  for  the  money  :  but  he 
never  took  kindly  to  it,  and  always  spoke  of  it  in 
contemptuous  terms  as  the  "  white  man's  dog  kennel." 

The  most  striking  contrast  to  be  found  in  the  native 
village  between  the  old  and  the  new  style  of  Maori 
dwelling  is  the  house  built  by  the  late  chief  Te  Aika, 
who  was  formerly  an  inhabitant  of  the  old  Kaiapoi  Pa 
and  fought  in  its  defence.  The  building  is  a  neat  villa 
i-esidence  with  verandah  in  front,  and  contains  five  or  six 
rooms  of  fair  dimensions  comfortably  furnished.  The 
sitting  room  has  a  piano  in  it  on  which  the  old  chief's 
grand-daughter  played  for  his  amusement  any  English 
tunes  with  which  he  was  familiar.  A  short  distance 
behind  the  house  stands  a  stable  with  accommodation 
for  several  horses,  and  a  coach-house  containing  a  good 
buggy.  There  is  an  orchard  stocked  with  fruit  trees, 
and  in  front  of  the  section  a  garden  plot  full  of  English 
flowers.  A  shed  close  by  shelters  one  of  Eansom  and 
Sim's  steam  threshing  machines  owned  by  a  company  of 
young  Maoris  who  work  it  together.  All  young  Maoris 
can  now  speak  English,  and  apart  from  their  complexion 
there  is  nothing  in  the  dress  or  manners  and  customs  of 
the  Kaiapoi  Maoris  of  the  present  day  to  distinguish 
them  from  their  English  fellow-citizens. 

Some  details  of  the  historical  narrative  contained  in 
these  pages  may  appear  to  the  reader  rather  revolting, 
and  calculated  to  produce  an  unfavourable  impression  of 
the  Maori  people;  but,  before  adopting  any  adverse 
opinion  about  them  upon  such  evidence  as  that  which  is 
herein  supplied,  the  reader  should  bear  in  mind  that  it  is 


not  fair  to  judge  the  habits  and  actions  of  these  people 
by  our  standard  of  the  20th  century  culture  and  refine- 
ment, and  that  if  we  wish  to  deal  fairly  with  them  we 
ought  to  go  back  to  the  days  of  our  own  Saxon  fore- 
fathers when  they  first  appear  on  the  page  of  European 
history  for  the  standard  by  which  to  estimate  their 
habits  and  actions ;  and  if  we  do  this  we  shall  find  that 
the  difference  between  the  two  races  is  after  all  very 
small  indeed. 

In  a  work  written  by  Professor  Gummere,  and  pub- 
lished in  1893,  the  aim  of  which  is  to  give  an 
account  of  the  founders  of  our  race,"  we  find  evidence  of 
the  humbling  fact  that  our  own  forefathers  were  guilty 
at  times  of  perpetrating  quite  as  blood-curdling  deeds  of 
ferocity  as  the  Maoris — that  they  were  just  as  cruel, 
and  almost  as  backward  in  their  civilization.  Their 
dwelling-house  consisted  of  one  chamber  which  was  used 
for  all  purposes.  Adults  wore  but  scanty  clothing,  and 
young  children  none  at  all.  As  late  as  the  6th  century 
of  the  Christian  era,  infanticide  was  practised,  and  the 
sick  and  aged  and  useless  people  were  killed  without 
compunction.  Scandinavian  traditions  contain  allusions 
to  the  practice  of  drinking  the  blood  of  a  slain  enemy,  in 
order  to  acquire  his  courage  and  spirit.  "  Eating  the 
heart  "  is  a  tradition  deep  rooted  in  Germanic  mythology. 
The  German  warrior's  favourite  drinking  vessel  was  one 
fashioned  from  the  skull  of  a  slaughtered  enemy.  The 
famous  Alboin,  King  of  the  Lombards,  after  killing  his 
father-in-law,  Cunimund,  caused  a  drinking  cup  to  be 
made  from  his  skull.  This  cup  he  had  the  inhumanity 
to  send,  filled  with  wine,  to  his  queen,  telling  her  "  to 
drink  with  her  father "  —  an  insult  which  deservedly 
cost  him  his  life. 


The  following  story  of  the  siege  and  capture  of  Kaia- 
pohia  is  published  in  the  hope  that  it  will  prove  interest- 
ing not  only  to  the  general  public,  but  especially  so  to 
those  who  have  been  born  in  the  vicinity  of  Kaiapoi,  and 
who  may  learn,  perhaps  for  the  first  time,  from  these 
pages,  the  interesting  nature  of  the  locality  with  which 
they  are  so  closely  identified.  And  if  the  story  has  the 
good  fortune  to  survive  long  enough  in  print,  it  may 
prove  of  some  service  hereafter  to  the  historian  and  the 
archaeologist,  when  time  has  done  for  Pakeha  and  Maori 
history  what  it  has  done  for  that  of  Saxon,  Norman,  and 





The  pa  of  Kaiapohia  was  originally  built  by  Tu 
Eakautahi,  about  the  year  1700,  after  the  expulsion  from 
the  district  of  the  Ngatimamoe.  Tu  Rakautahi  was  the 
head  chief  of  the 'tribe  known  as  Ngatikuri,  or  Ngai- 
tahu,  a  tribe  which  first  settled  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Poverty  Bay  on  its  arrival  from  Hawaiki  in  the  canoes, 
Taki-timu,  Kara-haupo,  and  Mata-horua.  It  afterwards 
removed  to  the  shores  of  Cook  Strait,  and  fixed  its  chief 
settlement  near  Evans'  Bay,  in  Port  Nicholson.  From 
there  it  migrated,  in  1677,  to  Queen  Charlotte  Sound, 
and  commenced  at  once  a  war  of  extermination  against 
the  Ngatimamoe,  a  tribe  which  about  a  hundred  years 
previously  had  crossed  over  from  the  North  and  destroyed 
the  Waitaha,  who  were  the  preceding  Maori  occupants 
of  the  South  Island.  The  Waitaha  came  originally  from 
Hawaiki,  in  the  canoe  Arawa,  and  gradually  made  their 
way  south  from  the  Bay  of  Plenty,  and  crossed  Cook 
Strait  about  the  year  1570.  Freed  from  the  alarms  of 
war,  and  nourished  by  the  exhaustless  supplies  of  food 
furnished  by  a  region  where  the  finest  sorts  of  fern -root 
and  choicest  ti  palms  grew,  and  field  rats,  and  wekas 
swarmed  in  the  open  country,  where  the  woods  were  full 
of  kakas,  pigeons,  and  other  birds  suitable  for  food, 
where  the  lakes  and  rivers  were  covered  with  water-fowl, 


and  teemed  with  eels,  and  silveries,  and  whitebait, 
where,  along  the  sea-coast,  shell-fish,  seals,  mutton  birds 
and  fish  of  every  sort  were  obtainable,  the  Waitaha 
increased  and  multiplied  so  rapidly,  that  they  are 
described  in  the  ancient  traditions  as  "  covering  the  face 
of  the  country  like  myriads  of  ants." 

The  Ngaitahu  fought  their  way  under  the  leadership 
of  Tu  Eakautahi's  sons  from  Queen  Charlotte  Sound  to 
Stewart  Island,  and  the  remains  of  their  pas  may  be 
traced  all  along  the  coast  from  the  mouth  of  the  Wairau 
Eiver  to  Foveaux  Strait.  The  conquest  of  the  country 
occupied  the  Ngaitahu  about  thirty  years ;  and  it  was 
towards  the  close  of  that  period  that  Tu  Rakautahi  fixed 
the  head-quarters  of  the  tribe  at  Kaiapohia.  The  site 
was  well  chosen  for  defensive  purposes  on  a  small  tongue 
of  land  containing  about  five  acres,  jutting  out  into  the 
Tairutu  Lagoon,  a  sheet  of  water  of  considerable  size, 
and  deep  enough  to  afford  protection  on  three  sides  of 
the  pa.  Adjoining  the  lagoon  were  swamps  which 
stretched  away  north  and  south  along  the  coast  and  for 
many  miles  up  the  plain  in  a  westerly  direction.  These 
swamps  served  a  double  purpose :  they  added  to  the 
difficulties  of  a  hostile  force  trying  to  approach  the  'pa, 
and  at  the  same  time  afforded  facilities  for  the  escape  of 
the  inhabitants,  in  the  event  of  its  being  captured  by 

The  fortifications  consisted  of  earth-works,  surrounded 
by  strong  palisades.  The  defences  on  the  land  side 
were  strengthened  by  a  broad,  deep  ditch,  which  ex- 
tended across  the  entire  front  of  the  pa.  Behind 
the  wall  of  earth  there  was  a  double  row  of  strong 
palisades,  eighteen  to  twenty  feet  high,  bound  at  the 
top  and  bottom  to  cross  ties  with  a  tough  kind  of  wood- 


bine  called  Aka.  The  cross  ties  were  fastened  to  large 
totara  posts,  erected  at  intervals  along  the  wall ;  and  on 
the  top  of  each  post  was  carved  a  grotesque  figure,  inlaid 
with  pearl  shell,  and  painted  with  red  ochre.  The  walls 
were  pierced  by  three  openings,  two  on  the  land  side, 
and  one  on  the  western  side  adjoining  the  lagoon,  which 
was  connected  with  the  opposite  shore  by  a  bridge.  The 
pa  was  considered  so  impregnable,  that  it  became  a 
proverbial  saying  in  allusion  to  it,  "  who  can  scale  the 
inaccessible  cliff  of  God." 

The  space  within  the  walls  nearest  to  the  gates, 
Kaitangata  and  Huirapa,  was  occupied  by  the  houses  of 
some  of  the  principal  chiefs.  They  were  all  built  facing 
the  north,  and  were  large  structures  capable  of  accom- 
modating a  hundred  persons,  and  some  of  them  even  a 
greater  number.  They  were  ornamented  both  inside  and 
out  with  carving  and  scroll  work.  Close  beside  each  of 
these  dwelling  houses  stood  the  Kauta  or  kitchen,  and 
the  Whata  or  storehouse  belonging  to  it.  The  rest  of 
the  space  was  mostly  occupied  by  the  houses  of  the 
commonality,  who  formed  the  majority  of  the  population. 
There  were  two  burial  grounds  within  the  pa ;  and  a 
large  open  space  between  the  gates  Hiaka-rere  and 
Huirapa,  where  public  meetings  and  sports  were  held. 
At  the  north  end  of  this  space  stood  the  large  Whata 
erected  by  Tamati  Tikao's  father,  and  called  the  Matuku 
rangi.  The  stump  of  the  large  totara  post  which 
supported  the  Whata  is  still  visible.  The  "  Tuahu,"  or 
shrine  of  the  guardian  Atua,  was  placed  at  the  northern 
corner  of  the  fortress,  in  the  safest  and  most  secluded 
spot,  and  the  house  of  the  Ariki,  or  chief  priest,  adjoined 

—  From  survey  by  — 
and  a  Field  sketch  by 


The  timber  required  for  the  construction  of  the  pa  was 
procured  from  the  neighbouring  forests,  which  covered 
the  greater  part  of  what  is  now  known  as  the  Maori 
Keserve,  and  extended  from  Woodend  to  Eangiora.  The 
trees  were  cut  down  with  stone  axes,  a  long  and  tedious 
operation  where  they  were  of  any  size,  and  wooden 
wedges  were  employed  to  split  them  up  when  slabs  were 
required  for  house  building.  These  materials  were 
conveyed  to  the  place  where  they  were  to  be  used  either 
on  men's  shoulders  or  they  were  dragged  along  the 
ground  with  ropes,  skids  being  placed  underneath  to 
lessen  the  friction. 

When  timbers  had  to  be  hauled  from  the  forest,  a 
general  invitation  was  given  to  the  people  by  the  chiefs 
in  charge  of  the  work  to  come  and  assist  them ;  an 
invitation  which  was  always  readily  responded  to,  as  the 
business  of  hauling  was  always  the  occasion  of  much 
feasting  and  fun.  Women  as  well  as  men  were  welcome 
to  bear  a  hand  in  pulling  the  ropes  ;  and  to  ensure  their 
pulling  together  one  man  was  told  off  to  chant  a  song, 
to  each  verse  of  which  there  was  a  chorus.  While  the 
solo  part  was  being  sung  the  haulers  rested  and  took 
breath,  but  immediately  the  chorus  began  they  joined  in 
it  and  commenced  to  pull  with  all  their  might  and  main 
causing  the  woods  to  ring  again  with  the  echo  of  their 
loud  song.  With  successive  pauses  and  pulls  they 
proceeded  on  their  way  till  called  off  to  rest  and  feast. 

The  pa  got  its  name  Kaiapoi,  or  rather  Kaiapohia, 
(meaning  "food  depot,")  from  the  answer  given  by 
Turakautahi  to  those  who  criticised  his  choice  of  the  site 
for  it,  and  who  asked  him  how  he  expected  the  inhabitants 
of  a  place  so  situated  to  escape  starvation,  seeing  that  they 
were  too  far  removed  from  the  permanent  sources  of 



food  supply.          '  Kai '  must  be  '  poi '  or  swung  to  the 
spot,"  he  replied, — "  potted    birds   from  the   forests  of 

Kaikoura      i  n 
the  north;  fish 
and    mutton 
birds  from  the 
sea-coasts     of 
the     south ; 
kiore  and  weka 
and      kauru 
from  the  plains 
and  mountain 
ranges  of    the 
west."       The 
ready    wit    of 
the    chief    silenced 
the  objections  of  his 
critics,    and  his  pa 
was      henceforth 
known  as  Kaiapoi,  a  name 
destined  to  become  famous 
in  the  future  annals  of  the 

In  order  to  provide 
themselves  with  the 
means  of  exchange  for 
the  commodities  they 
stood  in  need  of,  the 
inhabitants  of  Kaiapoi 
were  obliged  to  devote 
much  of  their  time  to  the 
cultivation  of  the  kumara, 
or  sweet  potato,  and  to 
the  preparation  of  kauru, 


or  cabbage  tree  stems,  which  they  bartered  with  the 
inhabitants  of  other  parts  of  the  island  for  whatever  else 
in  the  shape  of  food  they  stood  in  need  of. 

The  kumara  being  a  native  of  a  tropical  climate  they 
found  great  difficulty  in  growing  it  so  far  south,  where 
frost  was  likely  to  prove  fatal  to  its  existence.  To 
regulate  the  temperature  of  the  soil,  and  to  secure 
perfect  drainage,  they  covered  the  surface  of  the  kumara 
plantations  with  fine  gravel,  to  a  depth  of  6  inches, 
which  was  afterwards  formed  into  mounds  about  2  ft. 
in  diameter,  and  arranged  over  the  field  with  the  pre- 
cision of  the  squares  on  a  chest- board,  and  in  these 
mounds  the  kumara  tubers  were  planted.  Breakwinds  of 
manuka  branches,  varying  from  two  to  four  feet  in 
height,  were  erected  every  few  yards  apart,  and  in  such 
a  way  as  to  secure  the  largest  amount  of  sunshine  and 
shelter  to  each  plant. 

Both  the  planting  and  gathering  of  this  crop  were 
attended  with  peculiar  religious  rites,  and  only  skilled 
persons  were  allowed  to  take  part  in  a  work,  every  detail 
of  which  was  held  sacred,  and  conducted  under  the 
supervision  of  officers,  chosen  for  their  special  qualifi- 
cations at  the  annual  meeting  of  Tohungas,  or  learned 
men,  held  in  the  Whare  Purakaunui  on  the  rising  of  the 
star  Puaka  (Rigel).  It  was  the  duty  of  these  officers  to 
consecrate  the  kumara  plantations  each  spring  to  the 
service  of  Marihaka  and  Pani,  the  two  divinities  who 
presided  over  the  welfare  of  the  sacred  plant.  Starting 
from  the  left-hand  corner  of  each  field,  they  began  this 
ceremony  by  placing  sprigs  of  koromiko  or  veronica  in 
the  ground ;  after  doing  this,  they  walked  in  a  straight 
line  to  the  other  side  of  the  field,  reciting  together  as 
they  went  the  appropriate  prayers.  At  the  top  of  each 


mara  or  plot  they  gathered  a  handful  of  leaves  or  weeds 
(pitau),  which  they  carried  in  their  hands  to  the  nearest 
Taumatua,  or  shrine. 

There  were  two  of  these  shrines  at  Kaiapoi,  one 
being  situated  at  Waituere,  nearly  opposite  Mr.  Charles 
Young's  present  residence,  and  the  other  near  the  Maori 
village  of  St.  Stephen's,  in  the  centre  of  the  reserve. 
They  each  consisted  of  a  small  piece  of  ground  a  few  feet 
square,  enclosed  with  a  fence  like  a  grave  plot :  within 
the  enclosure,  which  was  called  "  the  god's  garden,"  four 
mounds  were  made  and  planted  with  kumaras.  After 
•consecrating  the  left  side  of  the  fields,  the  officials  pro- 
ceeded to  consecrate  the  right  side,  gathering,  as  before, 
the  pitau  offering,  which  was  duly  placed  in  one  or  other 
of  the  shrines,  and  called  the  Whangainga,  or  feeding  of 
the  Atuas. 

The  last  persons  who  performed  these  important 
duties  at  Kaiapoi  were  Te  Auta,  Te  Whaketu,  Tina, 
Takatakau  and  Karara  ;  these  were  all  old  and  venerated 
chiefs.  Their  youthful  coadjutors  were  Takai,  Popowai, 
and  Tikapakapa.  The  pits  and  gravel-strewn  surfaces  in 
the  Woodend  district,  which  have  puzzled  the  English 
settlers  there  to  account  for,  remain  to  remind  this 
generation  that  Canterbury  once  included  amongst  its 
vegetable  products  a  tropical  plant  which  is  now  extinct, 
but  the  cultivation  of  which  for  many  generations 
occupied  much  of  the  time  and  thought  of  the  former 
inhabitants  of  the  country.  The  storing  of  the  kumara 
had  to  be  conducted  with  the  utmost  care,  as  the  slightest 
bruise,  or  even  abrasion  of  the  skin,  caused  the  immediate 
decay  of  the  tuber. 

The  kauru  was  prepared  in  the  summer  months  from 
the  cabbage  palms,  which  grew  in  great  profusion  on  the 


upper  parts  of  the  plain.  Young  trees,  about  five  feet 
high,  were  selected.  The  stems  were  cut  into  two  feet 
lengths,  and  stripped  of  the  bark  and  woody  substance 
which  covers  the  fibrous  core,  the  only  part  of  which 
was  valued  as  food.  These  were  tied  in  bundles  and 
stacked,  till  a  sufficient  quantity  had  been  obtained, 
when  an  oblong  pit  was  dug,  varying  in  size  from  four 
to  twelve  feet  in  length,  and  about  five  or  six  in  depth. 
A  quantity  of  stones  was  placed  at  the  bottom,  and 
firewood  piled  upon  them  which  was  afterwards  lit,  and 
when  consumed,  the  pit  was  filled  in  with  the  prepared 
ti  palm  stems,  which  were  covered  with  matting  and 
soil.  A  quantity  of  water  was  then  procured  in  buckets 
formed  with  flax  leaves,  and  poured  into  the  pit,  the 
bottom  of  which  was  covered  with  the  heated  stones. 
The  steam  generated  was  prevented  from  escaping  by  a, 
sufficient  quantity  of  soil  being  heaped  upon  the  mat- 
covering  of  the  pit.  After  several  hours  the  oven  was 
uncovered  and  the  kauru  was  found  to  be  cooked 
sufficiently  for  use.  It  was  then  placed  in  flax  baskets 
and  carried  to  the  store-houses  in  the  pa.  When 
required  for  food  the  fibre  was  either  chewed  for  the 
extraction  of  the  saccharine  matter  it  contained,  or 
pounded  and  mixed  with  water  in  a  wooden  dish  till  it 
assumed  the  consistency  of  thin  gruel,  when  it  was 
ready  for  use,  being  conveyed  to  the  mouths  of  those 
who  partook  of  it  either  with  a  mussel-shell  spoon  or  a. 
sop  of  fern  root ;  or,  wanting  these,  with  the  first  two 
fingers  of  the  right  hand. 

The  trade  created  by  the  system  of  food  exchange 
established  by  Tu  Eakautahi,  necessitated  the  employ- 
ment of  a  large  body  of  porters,  who  were  constantly 
employed  carrying  heavy  loads  to*  and  from  the  various 


pas  extending  from  the  north  to  the  south  of  the  Island. 
The  labours  of  these  men  were  greatly  increased  by  the 
practice  which  prevailed  of  giving  each  of  them  more 
than  one  load  to  carry.  This  necessitated  the  formation 
of  depots,  between  which  the  carriers  went  backwards 
and  forwards,  travelling  over  the  same  ground  again  and 
again,  until  they  reached  their  final  destination.  The 
weight  of  an  ordinary  load  was  seldom  short  of  a  hundred 
pounds.  Attached  to  the  lower  end  of  each  burden  was  a 
sort  of  stool,  to  enable  the  porter  to  rest  at  any  time 
during  the  journey,  without  the  trouble  of  disengaging 
himself  from  his  load. 

When  a  band  of  porters  were  returning  home,  and  had 
reached  the  last  stage,  they  sent  forward  one  of  their 
number  to  inform  the  person  to  whom  their  burdens 
were  consigned  of  their  arrival.  Whereupon  he  gathered 
a  number  of  his  friends  and  dependents  together,  and 
went  to  meet  the  carriers ;  and  on  reaching  the  place 
where  they  were  awaiting  him,  he  directed  the  extra 
loads  to  be  taken  up  by  those  who  had  accompanied 
him,  and  then  the  whole  party  started  in  procession  in 
the  pa,  where  on  entry,  they  were  greeted  with  loud 
acclamations  of  joy. 

The  population  of  Kaiapoi  was  considerable  for  a 
Maori  town,  and  very  aristocratic,  as  most  of  the  chief 
families  of  Ngaitahu  had  their  head-quarters  there, 
and  owned  what  we  would  call  a  family  mansion.  In 
peaceful  times  the  inhabitants  were  dispersed  over  the 
country  from  Waipara  to  Ashburton  and  from  the 
Western  Eanges  to  Banks  Peninsula,  fishing,  hunting,  or 
cultivating  the  land.  They  either  dwelt  during  such 
periods  in  partially  fortified  pas  like  those,  the  remains 
of  which  may  be  seen  near  St.  Stephen's  Church,  on  the 


Maori  Reserve,  or  in  open  kaingas,  consisting  of  a  few 
unprotected  whares. 

As  time  went  on  the  inhabitants  of  Kaiapoi  acquired  a 
widespread  reputation  for  wealth.  In  addition  to  the 
spoils  of  the  vanquished  Ngatimamoe,  they  were  known 
to  possess  a  large  quantity  of  the  highly-prized  green- 
stone, which  they  had  obtained  from  the  West  Coast ; 
and  many  covetous  eyes  in  the  North  Island  were  fixed 
upon  their  valuable  possessions.  Every  tribe  throughout 
Maoridom  prized  greenstone  above  everything  else,  and 
strove  to  acquire  it.  The  locality  in  which  it  was  found 
was  known  by  report  to  all,  and  the  popular  imagination 
pictured  untold  wealth  to  be  awaiting  the  adventurous 
explorer  of  that  region.  But  the  difficulties  which  beset 
the  journey  to  this  Maori  Eldorado  were  practically 
insurmountable,  and  frustrated  the  efforts  of  most  of 
those  who  attempted  to  reach  it.  The  stormy  straits  of 
Raukawa  had  first  to  be  crossed,  and  then  a  land 
journey  of  great  length  and  difficulty  undertaken,  over 
rugged  and  lofty  mountain  ranges,  so  steep  in  places  that 
the  travellers  were  obliged  to  use  ladders  formed  of 
supplejack,  or  other  tough  woodbines,  to  enable  them  to 
get  past.  Pathless  and  seemingly  interminable  forests 
had  to  be  traversed,  whose  dark  shades  were  made  still 
more  gloomy  by  the  incessant  rainfall,  which  kept  the 
thick  undergrowth  of  moss  and  ferns  always  dripping 
wet.  Deep  and  rapid  rivers  had  to  be  crossed,  either  on 
rafts  made  of  dried  flax  stalks,  or  on  foot,  the  waders 
being  able  to  avoid  being  swept  away  by  the  swift 
current,  only  by  a  number  of  them  entering  the  water 
together,  and  holding  on  tightly  to  a  pole  which  they 
bore  across  the  river  in  their  hands.  The  scarcity  of 
food  throughout  the  whole  region  to  be  traversed  by  the 


searcher  after  greenstone,  added  to  the  danger  of  the  task, 
for,  beyond  the  small  quantity  they  were  able  to  carry 
with  them,  travellers  were  entirely  dependent  for  their 
food  upon  the  wekas  and  eels,  which  they  were  able  to 
catch  as  they  went  along.  But  besides  all  these 
difficulties,  they  were  in  constant  danger  of  encountering 
hostile  bands  of  men,  bound  on  the  same  errand  as 

But  even  where  the  journey  was  so  far  successful  that 
the  treasure  sought  for  was  found,  its  great  weight  made 
it  impossible  for  the  discoverer  to  carry  back  more  than 
a  few  fragments,  and  these  were  obtained  by  breaking 
them  off  with  stone  hammers.  In  spite  of  the  longing 
desire  of  the  northern  Maoris  to  enrich  themselves  with 
the  treasures  of  greenstone  which  existed  on  the  West 
Coast  of  the  South  Island,  the  serious  obstacles  which 
beset  the  approach  to  that  region  deterred  them  from 
making  the  attempt  to  get  there,  and  they  had  to  content 
themselves  with  what  they  were  able  to  acquire  from 
their  fellow  countrymen  in  the  south,  in  exchange  for 
mats  and  canoes,  and  such  other  manufactures  as  their 
southern  neighbours  were  willing  to  accept. 

In  spite,  however,  of  the  drawbacks  and  difficulties 
attending  the  acquisition  of  greenstone,  there  were  very 
few  Maoris  in  either  island  who  did  not  possess  some 
tool,  or  weapon,  or  ornament  formed  of  it.  And  the  story 
of  the  way  in  which  the  Maoris  overcame  the  difficulties 
which  beset  the  finding  of  the  greenstone,  and  its 
conveyance  on  their  backs  across  the  Alpine  ranges  to 
their  distant  homes,  and  the  manufacture  of  its  hard 
material  into  useful  and  ornamental  objects,  will  remain 
a  lasting  monument  of  their  enterprise,  energy,  and 


According  to  an  ancient  legend  the  reason  why  green- 
stone is  found  in  such  an  inaccessible  region  is  that  the 
locality  was  chosen  by  the  three  wives  of  Tamatea  the 
circumnavigator,  when  they  deserted  him,  as  the  hiding 
place  most  likely  to  escape  discovery.  Tamatea's  search 
along  the  east  coast  was  unsuccessful,  and  after  passing 
through  Foveaux  Strait  he  continued  to  skirt  the  shore, 
listening  at  the  entrance  to  every  inlet  for  any  sound 
which  might  indicate  the  whereabouts  of  the  runaways. 
But  it  was  not  till  he  arrived  off  the  mouth  of  the 
Arahura  river  that  he  heard  voices.  There  he  landed, 
but  failed  to  find  his  wives,  being  unable  to  recognise 
them  in  the  enchanted  blocks  of  greenstone,  over  which 
the  water  murmured  incessantly.  He  did  not  know  that 
the  canoe  in  which  his  wives  escaped  from  him  had 
capsized  at  Arahura,  and  that  its  occupants  had  been 
changed  into  stone,  and  so  he  passed  them  by,  and 
continued  his  fruitless  quest. 




When  the  celebrated  warrior  chief  Te  Rauparaha 
found  himself  master  of  the  northern  shores  of  Cook 
Strait,  with  only  its  waters  separating  him  from  the 
people  who  were  thought  to  possess  fabulous  quantities 
of  the  precious  greenstone,  he  began  to  scheme  for  their 

The  development  of  his  project  was  hastened  by  the 
arrival  in  his  camp  of  a  runaway  slave  from  Kaikoura, 
who  reported  to  him  that  the  chief  of  that  place,  Eere- 
whaka  by  name,  on  hearing  an  account  being  given  of 
Te  Eauparaha's  viciorious  march  from  Waikato  to 
Kapiti,  had  given  utterance  to  the  foolish  boast  that  "  he 
would  rip  his  stomach  open  with  a  barracoota  tooth — 
niJw  manga,  one  of  the  Maori  substitutes  for  a  knife— if 
he  dared  to  pursue  his  march  any  further  south,  and 
ventured  to  invade  the  Kaikoura  country." 

Both  Te  Eauparaha  and  his  followers  were  highly 
exasperated  when  they  heard  of  this  insolent  speech, 
which  amounted  to  a  "  kanga  "  or  curse,  a  form  of  insult 
which,  according  to  the  Maori  code  of  honour,  blood 
alone  could  atone  for.  But  as  Eerewhaka  was  the  head 
of  a  community  numbering  three  or  four  thousand 
persons,  and  residing  at  a  distance  of  more  than  a 
hundred  miles  from  Kapitij  Te  Eauparaha  was  forced  to 


put  a  restraint  upon  his  feelings,  and  to  defer  for  some 
time  the  prosecution  of  his  project  of  revenge.  He 
resolved  to  wait  till  he  was  able  to  procure  from  the 
Sydney  trading  vessels  which  frequented  the  harbour  of 
Port  Nicholson  a  sufficient  quantity  of  firearms  and 
ammunition  with  which  to  equip  his  whole  force ;  and 
then  with  such  superior  weapons  he  might  attack  the 
southern  natives  without  the  slightest  risk  of  defeat,  as 
they  could  oppose  him  only  with  the  ancient  weapons  of 
the  country. 

When  his  plans  were  matured,  Te  Eauparaha  embarked 
at  Kapiti  a  picked  force  of  seven  hundred  men  in  several 
war  canoes,  and  sailed  for  Kaikoura.  He  timed  his 
movements  so  as  to  arrive  off  the  pa  at  Omihi,  near  the 
Amuri  Bluff,  about  dawn.  He  anchored  just  outside  the 
surf,  and  watched  from  there  the  effect  of  his  arrival. 
He  soon  saw  that  he  had  nothing  to  fear  from  the 
inhabitants  of  the  place,  whose  conduct  as  soon  as  they 
discerned  the  presence  of  the  canoes,  proved  that  they 
were  quite  in  the  dark  as  to  the  character  of  the  persons 
who  manned  them.  There  was  much  running  to  and  fro 
on  shore,  and  apparent  consultation,  which  ended  in  a 
general  movement  towards  the  beach,  which  was  soon 
crowded  with  men,  women,  and  children  who  raised  the 
cry  of  welcome,  "  Haeremai !  "  under  the  mistaken  notion 
that  the  new  arrivals  were  the  friends  whom  they 
were  expecting  from  Napier.  Te  Eauparaha  gave  orders 
to  lift  the  anchors  and  run  the  canoes  ashore ;  this  was 
immediately  done,  and  part  of  his  force  proceeded  at 
once  to  the  pa,  which  they  no  sooner  got  possession  of 
than  a  general  slaughter  of  the  inhabitants  commenced. 
Totally  unprepared  without  arms  of  any  sort  in  their 
hands,  the  inhabitants  of  Omihi  could  offer  no  resistance 


to  the  invaders.  The  beach  was  soon  strewn  with  the 
dying  and  the  dead,  and  Eerewhaka  himself  was  killed 
before  he  knew  that  any  enemy  was  near.  Hundreds 
were  killed  on  the  spot,  and  hundreds  more  were  carried 
away  to  be  killed  at  Kapiti,  or  to  be  kept  as  slaves. 

After  resting  ten  days,  Te  Eauparaha  sent  back  two- 
thirds  of  his  force  to  Kapiti  in  charge  of  the  captives, 
and  with  a  hundred  men  he  sailed  as  far  south  as  the 
mouth  of  the  Waipara  river,  where  he  landed  and  drew 
his  canoes  up  on  the  beach  out  of  reach  of  the  tide.  He 
then  marched  along  the  coast  to  Kaiapoi,  and  pitched 
his  camp  a  few  hundred  yards  to  the  south-west  of  the 

Shortly  after  his  arrival,  Tamaiharanui,  the  principal 
chief  and  high  priest  of  Ngaitahu,  accompanied  by  a 
Ngapuhi  native  named  Hakitara,  visited  Te  Eauparaha  for 
the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the  object  of  his  coming,  and 
to  negotiate  terms  of  peace.  During  the  interview  Te 
Eauparaha  stood  up  and  recited  a  "  tau  "  or  war  song. 
Hakitara,  who  understood  the  full  import  of  it,  advised 
Tamaiharanui  to  retire  at  once  to  his  own  pa,  as  mischief 
was  brewing,  proposing  that  he  himself  should  remain  to 
get  more  information.  This  he  sought  to  obtain  from 
the  slaves  who  were  likely  to  prove  more  communicative 
than  their  masters.  In  the  course  of  conversation  with 
some  of  them,  he  learnt  that  a  party  of  the  northern 
visitors  had  that  very  day  found  a  newly-made  grave  at 
Tuahiwi  (St.  Stephen's),  which  they  opened,  and  from 
which  they  removed  the  body  of  a  woman,  which  they 
carried  to  a  stream  at  Woodend,  where  they  cleaned 
it,  and  afterwards  cooked  and  ate  it.  The  body  proved 
to  be  that  of  Te  Euaki,  an  aunt  of  Tamaiharanui,  and  its 
treatment  by  the  northern  warriors  left  no  doubt  on  the 



minds  of  the  Kaiapoi  natives  that  their  own  destruction 
would  be  attempted  whenever  a  favourable  opportunity 

The  arrival  of  fugitives  from  Omihi,  who  horrified  them 
with  the  details  of  the  slaughter  of  its  inhabitants, 
increased  their  suspicions  of  foul  play.  But  Te  Eaupa- 
raha  kept  assuring  them  that  he  was  actuated  by  the 
most  friendly  feelings  towards  them  ;  and  to  inspire  them 
with  confidence  in  his  assurances,  he,  with  reckless 
imprudence,  allowed  his  nearest  relatives  and  most 
distinguished  chiefs  to  enter  the  fortress  whenever  they 
chose  to  do  so,  where  they  carried  on  a  brisk  trade  in 
greenstone,  for  which  they  gave  firearms  and  ammunition 
in  exchange.  Hoping  to  disengage  Hakitara  from  the  Ngai- 
tahu,  and  to  attach  him  to  himself,  Te  Bauparaha 
presented  him  with  one  of  his  female  captives,  Te 
Aka  by  name.  Shortly  afterwards  it  happened  that  a 
council  of  war  was  held  just  outside  the  hut  occupied  by 
Hakitara,  who  overheard  Te  Eauparaha  and  Te  Eangi- 
haeata  saying  to  each  other,  Soon  we  shall  have  our  pa." 
Suddenly  a  voice  exclaimed,  "  Beware  of  the  Ngapuhi 
man."  "  Oh,  he  is  fast  asleep,"  was  the  reply.  The 
chiefs  then  proceeded  with  their  deliberations,  and 
having  decided  what  to  do,  they  separated. 

Just  before  dawn  Hakitara  put  on  a  dog-skin  mat 
which  he  found  lying  near  him,  and  went  out,  and 
succeeded  in  passing  through  the  camp  without  being 
challenged.  As  soon  as  he  got  clear  of  the  sentries, 
he  ran  with  all  speed  to  the  pa,  and  on  reaching  the 
gate  he  called  to  the  keeper  to  open  it  and  let  him 
in.  He  was  recognised,  and  at  once  admitted.  Turning 
to  the  person  in  charge  of  the  guard,  he  directed  him  to 
summon  all  the  chiefs  without  delay  to  meet  him  in  the 


adjoining  house,  as  he  had  a  most  important  communica- 
tion to  make  to  them.  A  hurried  meeting  followed, 
at  which  he  disclosed  the  treacherous  intentions  of 
the  northern  visitors.  It  was  unanimously  decided  to 
break  the  truce  concluded  with  them  the  day  before,  and 
to  be  the  first  to  strike  a  blow.  The  most  celebrated  of 
Eauparaha's  friends  were  already  within  the  pa  driving 
bargains,  and  it  was  thought  not  at  all  improbable  that 
the  great  chief  himself  might  be  induced  to  enter. 

A  crowd  of  men,  women,  and  children  were  sitting  in 
the  "  Marae  "  or  open  space  opposite  the  Hiaka-rere 
gate  when  Te  Pehi,  Eauparaha's  favourite  friend  and 
most  powerful  ally,  and  a  renowned  warrior,  a  man  of 
such  enterprise  that  he  braved  the  perils  of  a  voyage 
to  England  in  search  of  firearms,  came  forth  from 
Koroua's  house  dragging  by  a  rope  a  block  of  green- 
stone called  Kaoreore,  intending  to  take  it  out  by  the 
gate  to  his  camp.  But  as  he  passed  the  group  of 
onlookers  who  were  watching  his  movements,  one  of 
them  named  Moi  Moi  stood  up  and  called  out  in  a 
loud  voice,  "Leave  my  greenstone!  Leave  my  green- 
stone !  " 

Te  Pehi,  who  was  now  within  four  or  five  paces  of  the 
gate,  turned  and  faced  the  speaker,  and  in  the  most 
contemptuous  terms  derided  him  for  daring  to  question 
the  actions  of  one  so  much  his  superior.  "  Badly  tatooed  ; 
badly  tatooed,"  he  cried,  "what  use  would  your  ugly 
*head  be  to  me  if  I  were  to  carry  it  with  me  to  Kapiti ; 
it  would  be  worth  nothing  towards  the  purchase  of  a 
musket."  "  But  here  is  a  man,"  turning  towards  Te 
Panihi  who  stood  near  him  with  a  well  tatooed  face  ;  '  his 
head  would  be  worth  having  ;  but  you  with  a  valueless 

*  Preserved  human  heads  were  saleable  at  that  time  to  Europeans  as 


head,  how  dare  you  call  in  question  the  doings  of  Pehi- 
tu-a-te-rangi !  " 

Whilst  this  altercation  was  proceeding,  Eongotara,  a 
Kaiapoi  chief,  noticed  that  Pokaitara,  a  famous  northern 
warrior  was  standing  outside  the  gate,  evidently  seeking 
admission.  He  knew  that  his  own  brother,  taken 
prisoner  at  Omihi,  had  been  allotted  to  this  particular 
chief.  Approaching  close  to  the  gate  Eongotara  invited 
him  to  come  in,  saying,  "  Welcome,  my  younger  brother's 
Lord  !  "  and  begged  Te  Hapa  the  gate-keeper  to  admit 
him.  "  Open  the  gate  for  my  brother's  Lord,"  he  said, 
and,  as  he  did  so,  Pokaitara  stooped  to  enter.  But 
no  sooner  was  his  head  and  neck  past  the  portal  than 
Eongotara  who  was  carrying  a  miti  or  stone  club  on 
his  shoulder  brought  it  down  with  all  his  force  on  the 
bent  neck  of  the  northern  chief,  and  with  one  blow 
crushed  in  the  base  of  his  skull  and  killed  him. 

Te  Pehi,  seeing  what  had  happened,  left  the  greenstone 
and  sprang  towards  the  south-western  angle  of  the  wall, 
and  tried  to  scramble  over  the  fence.  Several  shots 
were  fired  at  him  without  effect ;  and  he  would  probably 
have  succeeded  in  making  good  his  escape,  but  for 
Tangatahara,  a  man  of  great  bodily  strength,  and  a 
courageous  warrior,  who  grappled  with  him  and  succeeded 
in  dispatching  him  with  a  hatchet.  The  report  of  fire- 
arms alarmed  the  rest  of  the  northern  chiefs  who  were  at 
the  other  end  of  the  pa,  and  who  at  once  rushed  towards 
the  walls,  hoping  to  scale  them  and  escape  to  their  camp. 

Te  Aratangata,  who  had  gone  to  the  extreme  end  of  the 
pa  to  try  and  secure  the  Pounamu,  called  Teruahikihiki, 
ran  towards  the  gate,  Huirapa.  He  was  a  very  tall 
and  powerfully-built  man,  and  brave  as  a  lion.  He  was 
attacked  by  fully  twenty  persons  armed  with  a  variety  of 


weapons ;  but  with  nothing  but  his  greenstone  mere,  Te 
Kaoreore,  he  defended  himself  with  such  success,  that 
he  was  able  not  only  to  keep  them  at  bay  for  some 
minutes,  but  to  lessen  materially  the  distance  between 
himself  and  the  gate  through  which  he  hoped  to  force 
his  way.  Te  Pa's  shot  was  the  first  wound  he  received, 
but  it  did  not  touch  a  vital  part ;  then  three  spears  were 
plunged  into  his  body ;  still  he  continued  to  run  forward, 
the  spears  trailing  along  the  ground  ;  a  shot  then  struck 
his  mere  and  broke  it,  leaving  only  the  stump  in  his 
hand.  He  was  now  practically  defenceless,  and  his 
movements  were  hampered  by  the  spears  firmly  fixed 
in  the  fleshy  parts  of  his  body.  Emboldened  by  his 
helpless  condition,  his  assailants  closed  upon  him,  and 
one  named  Te  Koreke  sprang  upon  his  back  and  threw 
him  forward  on  his  face,  when  Tuwhakarawa  struck  him 
several  blows  on  the  head  and  neck  with  a  tomahawk, 
and  killed  him  outright. 

Te  Kohi  was  despatched  by  Manahi  Iri  with  a  hatchet, 
and  the  rest  were  either  shot  or  tomahawked. 

In  all  eight  northern  chiefs  were  killed,  namely  : — 
Te  Pehi,  Te  Pokaitara,  Te  Eangikatuta,  Te  Euatahi, 
Te  Hua  Piko,  Te  Aratangata,  Te  Kohi,  and  Te  Kohua. 
They  were  all  tried  friends  and  companions  in  arms 
of  Te  Eauparaha,  who  had  accompanied  him  in 
all  his  wars,  and  contributed  largely  by  their  courage  and 
ability  to  his  past  victorious  career.  The  destruction  of 
so  many  of  his  friends  was  a  terrible  blow  to  him. 
Eauparaha  never  imagined  that  the  Kaiapoi  people  would 
dare  to  take  the  initiative,  and  provoke  his  vengeance  by 
killing  his  friends  and  relations,  and  the  unexpected  turn 
of  events  took  him  completely  by  surprise.  Only  one 
course  remained  open  to  him,  and  that  was  to  retreat 


with  all  possible  speed.  He  accordingly  broke  up  his 
camp  and  marched  off  to  the  mouth  of  the  Waipara  river 
near  Double  Corner,  where  he  had  left  his  canoes,  and 
from  there  he  sailed  the  next  day  for  Kapiti. 




Two  years  passed  without  the  Kaiapoi  people  hearing 
anything  further  about  Te  Eauparaha,  and  they  were 
beginning  to  flatter  themselves  that  he  would  never 
return  to  trouble  them  again,  when  they  were  rudely 
awakened  from  their  false  security  in  a  way  they  least 

Towards  the  close  of  1830  an  English  brig,  commanded 
by  Captain  Stewart,  entered  Akaroa  Harbour  for  the 
avowed  purpose  of  purchasing  flax  fibre  for  the  Sydney 
market.  The  first  Maoris  who  approached  the  vessel 
were  told  that  no  Maoris  would  be  allowed  on  board 
till  their  chief,  Tamaiharanui  had  conferred  with  the 
captain.  The  chief  was  absent  at  the  time,  and  a 
messenger  was  immediately  despatched  to  Little  Eiver 
to  fetch  him ;  but  as  he  was  busy  preparing  a  cargo  of 
flax  for  one  of  his  Sydney  customers,  he  did  not  comply 
with  the  first  summons,  and  it  was  not  till  the  eighth 
day  that  he  came  alongside  the  brig,  accompanied  by 
his  wife  and  their  little  daughter  Ngaroimata  (tear- 

He  was  cordially  welcomed  by  the  captain,  who  took 
him  below  to  the  cabin,  under  the  guise  of  hospitality ; 
he  was  barely  seated  before  a  cabin  door  opened,  and  Te 
Eauparaha  and  Eangihaeata,  accompanied  by  several 


other  Kapiti  chiefs,  entered.  They  at  once  seized  and 
bound  Tamaiharanui,  taunting  him  all  the  while  with 
his  simplicity  in  falling  so  readily  into  the  trap  prepared 
for  him.  After  the  seizure  of  the  chief  the  Maoris,  who 
till  then  had  not  been  allowed  to  come  near  the  ship 
were  invited  to  come  on  board,  and  under  one  pretext  or 
another  were  induced  to  go  below,  where  Rauparaha  and 
one  hundred  and  seventy  of  bis  warriors  were  secreted. 
Canoe  loads  of  people  continued  to  come  on  board  for 
many  hours,  there  being  no  suspicion  of  foul  play,  owing 
to  its  being  the  practice  of  the  people,  when  trading 
with  vessels  visiting  the  port,  to  remain  on  board  for 
hours  together. 

On  the  dawn  of  the  second  day  after  Tamaiharanui's 
capture,  Te  Eauparaha  attacked  his  pa  at  Takapuneke. 
The  place  was  unfortified  and  undefended ;  and  after 
killing  a  hundred  of  the  inhabitants,  he  carried  the  rest, 
numbering  50,  away  with  him  as  prisoners.  The 
following  day  the  brig  sailed  for  Kapiti. 

During  the  voyage  Tamaiharanui  smothered  his  little 
daughter,  appropriately  named  tear-drops,  with  his  mat 
as  she  slept  beside  him  one  night,  lest  she  should  ever 
become  the  wife  of  one  of  his  enemies.  His  captors 
were  very  much  enraged  with  him  for  doing  what  he  did, 
and  fearing  he  might  commit  suicide  and  escape  the 
punishment  in  store  for  him,  they  bound  his  hands  and 
fastened  him  securely  to  a  ringbolt  in  the  hold. 
His  vindictive  foes  watched  with  cruel  satisfaction 
the  suffering  their  precautionary  measures  occasioned 
their  prisoner. 

On  reaching  the  island  stronghold  of  Kapiti, 
Tamaiharanui  was  handed  over  to  the  widow  of  Te  Pehi, 
who  put  him  to  death  by  slow  and  nameless  tortures. 


Base  as  the  means  adopted  for  his  capture  were,  and 
cruel  as  his  fate  was,  it  is  impossible  to  feel  much  pity 
for  Tamaiharanui.  His  punishment  was  hardly  more 
than  he  deserved.  The  treatment  he  received  at  the 
hands  of  the  Ngatitoa  was  little  more  than  a  repetition 
of  the  cruelties  which  he  had  himself  inflicted  on 
members  of  his  own  tribe. 

To  persons  unacquainted  with  the  social  customs  of 
the  Maori  before  European  civilization  obliterated  the 
distinction  which  prevailed  between  the  noble  and  the 
plebeian,  and  upset  all  social  order,  and  reduced  the 
entire  race  to  one  dead  level  of  social  inferiority  in  the 
presence  of  the  Pakeha,  it  may  appear  strange  to  be  told 
that  the  Maoris  were  far  more  ceremonious  in  their  social 
intercourse  with  each  other,  and  more  attentive  to 
etiquette  than  Europeans  generally  are.  But  the  Maoris 
have  long  given  up  the  polite  courtesies  which 
distinguished  their  intercourse  with  each  other,  and  the 
respectful  demeanour  which  their  ancient  customs 
required  them  to  manifest  towards  their  superiors,  for  the 
graceless  familiarity  of  intercourse  introduced  by  the 
white  man.  It  may  be  that  the  Maoris  carried  their 
punctiliousness  to  excess,  and  that  too  great  deference 
was  paid  to  chiefs  of  the  highest  rank  ;  but  that  only 
makes  their  present  mannerlessness  the  more  apparent. 

The  behaviour  of  the  Kaiapoi  people  to  Tamaiharanui 
who  was  the  upoko  ariki,  chief  priest  and  heir  of  the 
ancestral  honours  of  Ngaiterangiamoa,  the  noblest  family 
of  Ngaitahu,  illustrates  the  relation  which  existed 
between  a  chief  and  his  people,  and  the  way  in  which 
respect  for  his  person  was  shown. 

As  the  hereditary  spiritual  head  of  the  tribe,  he  was 
regarded  with  peculiar  reverence  and  awe.  The  common 


people  did  not  even  dare  to  look  upon  his  face,  and  his 
equals  felt  his  sacred  presence  an  oppressive  restriction 
upon  their  liberty  of  action,  for  even  an  accidental  breach 
of  etiquette  while  holding  intercourse  with  him,  might 
involve  them  in  serious  loss  of  property,  if  not  of  life. 
His  visits  were  always  dreaded,  and  his  movements, 
whenever  he  entered  a  pa,  were  watched  with  great 
anxiety  by  the  inhabitants  :  for  if  his  shadow  happened 
to  fall  upon  a  whata  or  a  rua  (storehouses  for  food)  while 
he  was  passing  through  the  crowded  lanes  of  a  town,  it 
was  immediately  destroyed  with  all  its  contents,  because 
it  would  be  an  unpardonable  insult  for  a  commoner  to 
eat  food  upon  which  the  sacred  shadow  of  an  ariki  noble 
had  fallen. 

There  was  little  in  Tamaiharanui's  personal  appearance 
to  mark  his  aristocratic  lineage.  His  figure  was  short 
and  thick  set,  his  complexion  dark  and  his  features 
rather  forbidding.  Unlike  most  Maori  chiefs  of  exalted 
rank,  he  was  coivardly,  cruel,  and  caparicious,  an  object 
of  dread  to  friends  and  foes  alike  ;  and,  however  much 
his  people  may  have  mourned  the  manner  of  his  death, 
they  could  not  fail  to  experience  a  sense  of  relief  when 
he  was  gone. 

After  the  shock  caused  by  the  startling  news  of  Te 
Eauparaha's  raid  on  Akaroa,  the  Kaiapoi  community 
soon  resumed  their  ordinary  occupations. 

Every  morning  shortly  after  dawn,  a  stream  of  persons 
of  all  ages  might  have  been  seen  issuing  from  the  gates, 
and  wending  their  way  along  the  narrow  paths  which  led 
to  the  kumara  and  other  plantations,  which  were  spread 
over  the  district  on  the  sheltered  side  of  the  forest  which 
stretched  from  Woodend  to  Eangiora.  By  ten  o'clock 
the  women  had  cooked  in  the  fields  the  first  meal  of  the 


day ;  the  smoke  of  their  cooking  fires,  as  it  ascended  in 
the  still  morning  air,  being  the  signal  to  all  who  wanted 
a  meal  to  make  for  the  spot.  While  the  strong  and 
able-bodied  were  occupying  themselves  in  the  field,  the 
old  people  remained  in  and  about  the  pa ;  the  women 
engaged  in  weaving  mats  or  baskets,  or  tidying  up  their 
premises,  and  the  men,  seated  singly  or  in  groups, 
occupied  themselves  with  carving  wood  or  rubbing 
shapeless  pieces  of  greenstone  into  meres,  axes,  or  ear 
ornaments.  The  chiefs  of  highest  rank  selected  a 
neighbouring  sandhill,  which  was  called  after  their  names, 
and  known  as  So-arid- So's  '  look  out,"  where  they  sat 
and  worked  in  their  solitary  grandeur. 

The  boys  and  girls  romped  and  played  in  the  open 
spaces  round  the  buildings,  after  the  manner  of  children 
all  the  world  over.  In  imitation  of  their  elders,  the  boys 
often  engaged  in  mimic  warfare  using  toy  spears 
and  other  weapons ;  and  in  later  times  employing 
occasionally  in  their  encounters  with  each  other  korari 
sticks,  to  represent  firearms.  Having  scooped  a  hole  in 
the  part  of  the  stick  representing  the  stock  end  of  the 
barrel,  they  filled  it  with  fine  wood  ash  ;  and  when  they 
discharged  their  imitation  guns,  they  blew  the  light  dust 
out  of  the  hole  to  represent  powder  smoke,  and  at  the 
same  time  made  a  sound  to  imitate  the  report  of  the 

One  boy  who  lived  to  sit  as  representative  of  the  South 
Island  in  the  General  Assembly  of  New  Zealand,  in  one 
of  these  encounters,  was  seen  by  his  eldest  sister  to 
enter  a  house  where  a  tempting  pile  of  soft  wood  ash  lay 
upon  the  hearth  just  suited  for  his  purpose,  forgetting  in 
the  excitement  of  the  moment,  the  wickedness  of  the  act" 

*  The  fire  inside  the  dwelling-house  was  sacred,  and  used  only  to  create 
light  and  warmth.  Fires  for  common  use  were  lighted  outside  the 


according  to  the  notions  of  his  people,  he  sacrilegiously 
appropriated  the  ashes  and  charged  his  gun  with  them  ; 
but  he  had  hardly  fired  it  before  his  sister  seized  him 
and  forced  some  detestable  filth  into  his  mouth,  not  so 
much  to  punish  him  for  the  offence  as  to  ensure  his 
cleansing  his  mouth  from  every  vestige  of  the  sacred  ash, 
which  if  left  anywhere  about  him  would  probably  have 
caused  his  death ;  and  partly  to  impress  upon  his 
youthful  mind  the  enormity  of  the  offence  of  which  he 
had  been  guilty,  and  so  prevent  his  ever  repeating 

But  it  must  not  be  supposed  that  the  children  had 
nothing  else  to  do  but  to  play,  and  were  allowed  to  grow 
up  in  unbridled  liberty  and  ignorance.  All  boys  of 
rangatira  rank  were  obliged  to  attend  the  classes  taught 
during  the  winter  months  in  the  Wharekura,  by  persons 
learned  in  history,  mythology,  and  the  various  branches 
of  knowledge  possessed  by  the  Maoris.  Though  the  time 
spent  under  instruction  was  short,  the  lessons  were 
difficult,  and  the  discipline  severe. 

The  following  reminiscence  of  a  Maori  school-boy's 
experience,  communicated  to  the  writer  by  one  of  the  last 
to  receive  instruction  in  the  old-fashioned  way,  will  give 
some  idea  of  what  an  ardent  seeker  after  knowledge  had 
to  face  in  olden  times  in  his  efforts  to  acquire  it.  The 
disorganisation  caused  by  Te  Rauparaha's  raids  interfered 
to  such  an  extent  with  the  regular  routine  of  pa  life,  that 
the  usual  classes  for  instruction  were  discontinued  for  a 
while  ;  and  the  narrator  of  the  following  story,  who  was 
then  about  fourteen  years  of  age,  seeing  no  immediate 
chance  of  the  instruction  classes  being  resumed,  and 
dreading  the  thought  of  growing  up  in  ignorance,  begged 
his  father  who  was  a  very  learned  man,  to  impart  to  him 


the  knowledge  he  thirsted  for.  His  father,  however, 
turned  a  deaf  ear  to  his  entreaties,  telling  him  that  the 
"  old  fashion  "  was  evidently  about  to  pass  away,  that 
the  Pakeha  would  soon  dominate  the  land,  and  then  the 
"  Maori  scholar's  sacred  back  would  be  denied  by  having 
to  carry  burdens  for  him."  The  Atuas  would  resent 
the  desecration  of  their  consecrated  servant,  and  put  him 
to  death ;  as  he  did  not  wish  to  have  any  hand  in 
shortening  his  own  child's  life,  he  would  not  consent  to 
initiate  him. 

The  boy  cried  and  pleaded  so  hard  and  so  perseveringly 
for  the  gratification  of  his  cherished  wish,  that  one  old 
chief,  who  was  a  sort  of  Maori  college  don,  named 
Taiarorua,  took  pity  upon  and  agreed  to  become  his 
instructor.  But  before  doing  so,  he  subjected  him  to 
very  disagreeable  treatment  to  test  the  sincerity  of  his 
protested  love  of  learning.  The  old  Tohunga  took  him 
first  to  a  certain  spot  in  the  river-bed  of  the  Selwyn. 
On  the  way  there,  he  wrapped  up  something  very  filthy 
and  disgusting  in  a  cabbage  leaf,  which  he  told  his  pupil 
to  place  on  his  head. 

On  reaching  the  river  they  both  sat  down  in  a  part 
where  the  stream  was  flowing  rapidly,  and  the  Tohunga 
began  to  repeat  various  incantations,  pouring  water  all 
the  time  with  the  palm  of  his  hand  over  the  neophyte's 
head,  who  was  directed  while  this  was  going  on  to  eat 
the  contents  of  the  cabbage  leaf ;  but  this  he  revolted 
from  doing,  and  after  touching  his  teeth  with  it  dropped 
it  into  the  stream.  He  was  told  that  the  object  of  the 
lustration  was  that  his  ears  might  be  opened  to  the 
instruction  he  was  about  to  receive. 

This  preliminary  ceremony  being  over,  they  adjourned 
to  the  whare  Purakaunui,*  or  schoolroom,  where  the 

*  So  called  because  used  as  an  armoury. 


classes  met  during  term  time.  When  the  pupils  as- 
sembled at  the  usual  hour,  the  Tohunga  told  them  to 
disperse  that  evening,  as  he  was  busy  initiating  a  new 
pupil.  After  they  had  all  gone  he  resumed  the  initiatory 
ceremonies.  The  lad  was  sent  to  collect  a  few  wild 
cabbage  leaves,  which  he  was  directed  to  give  to  his 
mother  to  cook  in  a  sacred  oven.  When  it  was  prepared, 
the  old  men  formed  a  circle  on  the  sacred  ground  near 
the  Atua's  shrine,  into  the  centre  of  which  the  boy  was 
led.  The  food  was  brought  into  the  circle,  and  one  of 
the  old  men  fed  the  boy,  while  his  instructor  repeated 
incantations  over  him ;  this  concluded,  the  lad  was  free 
to  a-ttend  the  classes  in  the  Wharekurat. 

Occasionally  there  would  be  a  tremendous  uproar  in 
the  pa,  owing  to  some  gossip  while  retailing  the  tittle- 
tattle  of  her  set  to  a  select  circle  of  her  friends,  letting 
out  that  Mrs.  Somebody  had  said  that  Mrs.  Somebody 
else  need  not  assume  such  "  airs  "  when  it  was  well 
known  that  her  great  grandfather  had  served  to  furnish 
her  own  great  grandfather  with  a  very  good  meal.  As 
soon  as  the  candid  friend  who  always  officiated  on  such 
occasions  had  imparted  to  the  disparaged  lady  the  spite- 
ful remarks  of  her  jealous  rival,  with  shrieks  and  screams 
she  immediately  sought  the  presence  of  her  traducer,  at 
whom  she  raved  in  unmeasured  terms,  flinging  back  the 
aspersion  cast  upon  her  lineage,  by  asserting  that  her 
family  had  eaten  far  more  members  of  the  families  of 
those  who  set  themselves  up  as  her  equals,  and  defied 
them  to  disprove  her  assertion.  Working  herself  into  a 
perfect  frenzy  she  would  throw  off  all  her  clothes,  and 
rush  about  waving  her  arms  like  a  maniac.  Around  her 

t  Same  building  sometimes  called  the  Eed  House,  because  painted 
•that  colour. 


would  gather  every  soul  within  hearing,  the  women  all 
talking,  and  shouting,  and  screaming  together,  all  giving 
their  opinions  at  once,  and  contradicting  one  another. 
The  men  squatted  round,  watching  the  proceedings  with 
great  amusement,  occasionally  interjecting  a  sarcastic 
remark  upon  the  personal  defects  of  their  lady  friends 
which  only  added  fuel  to  .the  fire,  and  increased  the 
confusion  of  a  scene  which  could  be  compared  only  to 
Bedlam  let  loose. 

The  "  Artful  Dodger  "  was  not  unknown  in  the  native 
community,  by  whom  he  was  called  the  grandson  of 
Whanoke.  The  following  is  one  of  the  many  stories 
which  are  told  about  the  clever  devices  he  resorted  to  in 
order  to  gain  his  dishonest  ends.  Somewhere  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Bangiora  there  was  a  sort  of  military 
storehouse,  where  provisions  were  kept  for  the  use  of 
warriors  who  might  be  suddenly  called  upon  to  go  out  on 
the  war-path.  Amongst  other  things  was  a  large  case  of 
potted  wood-fowl ;  Whanoke  coveted  the  delicious  con- 
tents of  the  case,  but  the  difficulty  was  to  get  rid  of  the 
persons  placed  in  charge  of  it.  A  happy  thought 
occurred  to  him  one  day,  which  led  to  the  accomplish- 
ment of  his  purpose.  Eumours  were  abroad  that  a 
neighbouring  tribe  was  meditating  an  attack,  but  no  one 
thought  that  there  was  any  immediate  cause  for  alarm, 
till  one  day  Whanoke  rushed  up  to  the  keepers  of  the 
storehouse  in  great  alarm,  and  informed  them  that  he 
had  just  met  a  large  war  party  who  would  be  upon  them 
in  the  course  of  a  few  minutes,  and  that  their  only 
chance  of  escaping  immediate  death  was  to  seek  the 
shelter  of  the  nearest  fortress.  Scared  by  the  statement 
so  cunningly  devised,  the  guardians  of  the  storehouse 
ran  away  with  all  speed,  leaving  Whanoke  to  appropriate 
.  the  contents  of  the  whata  at  his  leisure. 


About  this  period  the  Kaiapoi  people  became  ac- 
quainted for  the  first  time  with  European  food  and 
clothing,  through  the  Sydney  traders,  who  visited 
Whangaraupo  (Port  Cooper)  and  other  harbours  on  the 
coast,  to  barter  with  them  for  flax  fibre.  It  soon  became 
the  ambition  of  every  Maori  of  standing  to  secure  some- 
thing Pakeha  ;  but  owing  to  the  ignorance  of  the  nature 
of  many  of  the  things  offered  to  them  for  sale,  the 
selection  which  they  made  sometimes  led  to  very 
amusing  results.  One  chief  chose  a  case  of  what  he 
understood  contained  the  preserved  fat  of  a  large  land 
animal — corresponding  to  the  whale  of  the  ocean — which 
was  highly  esteemed  as  an  article  of  food  by  Europeans. 

On  the  occasion  of  a  great  feast,  to  which  the  whole 
pa  was  invited,  the  case  was  brought  out  from  the 
whata  with  a  great  parade  of  hospitality  by  the  owner, 
and  opened  amidst  the  plaudits  of  the  guests  who  were 
all  eager  to  taste  the  Pakeha  food.  The  host  explained 
that,  like  their  own  potted  birds'  flesh,  this  preserved 
meat  required  no  cooking  and  was  fit  for  immediate  use. 
As  the  number  of  persons  who  wished  to  taste  it  was  so 
great,  the  contents  of  the  box  were  broken  up  into  small 
pieces  which  were  served  out  to  the  guests,  who  com- 
menced to  munch  them  at  once ;  but  great  was  their 
surprise  on  finding  the  meat  difficult  of  mastication 
owing  to  the  froth  which  accumulated  in  their  mouths. 
Some,  thinking  themselves  more  knowing  than  the  rest, 
swallowed  their  portions  without  attempting  to  chew 
them,  but  the  after  effects  did  not  encourage  them  to  add 
soap  to  their  dietary,  and  they  continued  to  marvel  how 
the  white  man  contrived  to  swallow  and  keep  down  the 
fat  of  oxen,  till  further  intercourse  taught  them  the 
proper  use  to  which  soap  was  put. 


Though  the  trade  between  the  Pakehas  and  Maoris 
was  on  the  whole  fairly  conducted,  the  temptation  to 
take  advantage  of  their  ignorance  sometimes  proved  too 
strong  to  resist,  and  a  cask  of  sugar  on  being  landed 
would  sometimes  be  found  to  contain  more  sand  than 
sugar.  These  traders  were  the  pioneer  importers  of 
animal  and  vegetable  pests.  The  Norwegian  rat,  which 
they  unwittingly  introduced,  soon  overran  the  country, 
and  supplanted  the  native  rat  which  was  a  harmless 
creature,  very  like  the  field  mouse  of  Europe.  The 
vegetable  pest  was  knowingly  introduced  with  the 
intention  of  defrauding  the  Maoris,  who  having  learnt 
that  tobacco  was  made  from  the  leaf  of  a  plant,  became 
very  desirous  to  secure  some  seed,  and  the  traders 
promised  to  procure  it  for  them,  provided  they  were  well 
paid  for  their  trouble.  But  as  no  tobacco  plant  grew  in 
Australia,  something  else  had  to  be  substituted,  and  docks 
being  plentiful,  a  supply  of  the  seed  of  that  plant  was 
collected  and  brought  to  New  Zealand,  where  the 
Maoris  paid  a  high  price  for  it,  and  cultivated  it  with  the 
greatest  care,  under  the  impression  that  it  was  the 
"  fragrant  weed  "  they  had  learnt  to  love. 

The  Kaiapoi  people  knew  nothing  at  this  time  about 
any  animals  but  dogs  and  native  rats,  never  having  seen 
or  heard  of  the  Captain  Cook  variety  of  porker,  which 
up  to  that  time  had  not  appeared  in  the  country  districts, 
where  it  afterwards  became  so  numerous.  From  those 
who  boarded  the  trading  vessels  they  heard  a  good  deal 
about  some  strange  animals — altogether  unlike  the  only 
quadrupeds  they  were  familiar  with.  Great  was  the 
excitement  in  the  pa  caused  by  the  news  that  two  of 
these  strange  creatures  were  about  to  arrive,  having  been 
purchased  by  an  enterprising  chief  belonging  to  the 


place.  Oh  the  day  they  were  to  reach  the  pa  all  business 
was  stopped,  and  the  oldest  and  gravest  persons  in  the 
community  were  as  excited  and  agitated  as  the  youngest. 
The  whole  population  went  outside  and  waited  by  the 
road  along  which  they  understood  that  the  pigs  were  to 
come.  Many  hours  passed,  and  the  younger  people 
kept  running  backwards  and  forwards  along  the  road 
leading  to  the  Waimakariri  to  try  and  get  tidings  of  the 
approaching  strangers. 

The  patience  of  the  crowd  was  well  nigh  exhausted 
when  loud  shouts  were  heard  in  the  distance,  and  the 
news  was  soon  passed  along  that  Hinewaitutu  and 
Tahututua,  the  names  bestowed  by  the  owner  on  his 
new  purchases,  had  arrived.  Immediately  the  cry 
arose,  "  Come  !  Come !  Come  !  and  see  these  strange 
creatures."  There  was  a  general  rush  to  the  spot,  and 
the  narrow  path  was  soon  completely  blocked.  The 
exclamation  of  wonder  and  astonishment  which  those 
who  first  caught  sight  of  the  pigs  gave  vent  to,  served  to 
heighten  the  curiosity  of  less  fortunate  persons  in  the 
rear,  who  craned  their  necks  and  pressed  with  all  their 
might  to  catch  a  glimpse  of  what  was  causing  those  who 
enjoyed  a  better  view  so  much  wonder. 

As  the  pigs  came  waddling  along  from  side  to  side, 
jerking  at  every  stride  the  string  by  which  their  drivers 
held  them,  the  crowd  made  way,  and  formed  an  admiring 
circle  round  them.  The  old  people  gazed  wonderingly 
upon  them,  and  expressed  in  warm  terms  their  feeling  of 
satisfaction  at  having  seen  what  former  generations  had 
never  seen.  The  excitement  was  intense,  and  the  noise 
caused  by  everyone  shouting  their  comments  at  the 
same  time,  deafening.  All  were  remarking  upon  the 
appearance  of  the  strange  creatures,  drawing  attention 


to  the  curious  shape  of  their  snouts  and  ears  and  tails 
and  feet,  when  the  pigs  began  to  grunt.  "  Silence, 
silence,"  roared  the  immediate  bystanders.  "  Silence, 
that  we  may  listen  to  the  voice  of  the  pig."  The  silence 
was  of  very  short  duration,  for  no  sooner  did  the  crowd 
hear  the  grunting  than  there  rose  from  their  lips  the 
simultaneous  exclamation,  '  Ananah !  Ananah !  verily 
the  voice  and  language  of  the  pig  are  as  strange  as  its 




The  interest  awakened  by  the  newly  developed  trade 
with  white  people,  kept  the  minds  of  the  Kaiapoi  Maoris 
occupied,  and  by  diverting  their  thoughts  from  the 
danger  of  invasion  lulled  them  into  a  state  of  false 
security.  The  difficulty  of  transporting  a  sufficient  body 
of  men  from  Kapiti  to  make  victory  secure,  would,  they 
hoped,  prevent  the  northern  natives  from  attacking  them 
in  force.  They  had  yet  to  learn  what  tough  stuff  their 
enemy  was  made  of,  and  what  seemingly  impossible 
things  his  unconquerable  energy  and  implacable  spirit 
would  drive  him  to  do.  Unsatiated  by  the  revenge  he 
had  taken  on  Tamaiharanui,  Te  Eauparaha  vowed  to 
destroy  Kaiapoi,  and  to  mingle  the  blood  of  its  inhabi- 
tants with  the  blood  so  dear  to  him  spilt  within  its  walls. 
The  execution  of  the  scheme  for  its  destruction  was 
hastened  by  mata  or  prophecy  uttered  by  a  seer  at 
Kapiti  named  Kukurarangi,  who  foretold  the  success  of 
his  plans  in  words  to  the  following  effect : — 

He  aha  te  hau 

He  uru,  He  tonga 

He  parera  Kai  waho  E. 

Nau  mai  ra  e  Raha 

Kia  kite  koe  i  te 

Ahi  i  Papa-kura  ki  Kaiapohia 

What  is  the  wind  ? 
It  is  north-west,  it  is  south, 
It  is  east  in  the  offing,  oh  ! 
Come  then,  0  Raha  !  * 
That  you  may  see  the  fire 
On  tlie  crimson  flat  of  Kaia- 

f  Contraction  for  Te  Eauparaha. 



Ma  te  ihu  waka 

Ma  te  kakau  hoe 

A  ka  taupoki 

Te  riu  o  te  waka 

A  Maui  ki  raro 

Tuki  tukia  nopenopea  Ha  ! 

Ha  Taku  pokai  tara  puka 

E  tu  ki  te  muri  wai 

Ki  Wai  para  ra  i  ia 

Ka  whaka  pae  te  riri  ki  tua 

Awhitia  kia  piri  kia  tata 
Ka  tara  te  ri  kohi  ti 

By  the  prow  of  tlie  canoe 
By  the  handle  of  the  paddle 
The  hold  of  the  canoe  of  Maui 
May  be  overturned  to  cover  it ; 

Then  pound,  pound  the  sea  ! 
And  stir  it  with  your  paddles 
Behold  my  flock  of  curlews 
Hovering  over  the  backwater 
Of  that  Waipara  there 
The  fight  will  be  on  the  other 

Embrace    it,    get    closer    and 

Fierce  will  rage  the  fight. 

About  a  year  after  his  raid  on  Akaroa,  Te  Rauparaha 
embarked  in  a  fleet  of  war  canoes,  a  force  of  six  hundred 
warriors,  selected  from  Ngatitoa,  Ngatiraukawa  and 
Ngatiawa.  As  soon  as  his  fleet  were  observed  off  the 
coast  of  the  South  Island,  messengers  were  despatched 
to  warn  the  inhabitants  of  Kaiapoi  of  his  approach,  but 
the  warning  only  reached  them  a  short  time  in  advance 
of  the  enemy.  The  news  quite  unnerved  the  people,  who 
were  totally  unprepared.  In  their  perplexity  they  resolved 
to  consult  the  guardian  deity  of  their  tribe,  Kahukura. 
This  divinity  was  classed  among  the  beneficent 
Maori  Atuas.  His  cultus  was  introduced  by  the 
crew  of  Takitimu,  who  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Kaia- 
pohians.  The  staff  used  for  divination  purposes  was 
about  eighteen  inches  in  length ;  the  upper  third 
representing  an  elaborately  tattooed  face  and  body ;  the 
lower  end  being  quite  round  and  smooth.  The  image  was 
kept  in  a  carved  wooden  box,  in  the  centre  of  a  clump  of 
flax  bushes,  called  the  '  pae "  or  resting  place  of  the 
Atua,  and  the  box  was  further  concealed  from  observation 
by  a  covering  of  dry  grass.  This  sacred  place  was  about 


half  an   acre  in   extent,  and  was  situated  close  to  the 
cemetery  which  now  adjoins  St.  Stephen's  Church. 

A  hurried  summons  brought  representatives  from  the 
outlying  villages  and  food  stations  to  take  part  in  the 
ceremony  of  "  Toro,"  and  Patuki,  a  fine  tall  man  in  the 
prime  of  life,  was  chosen  to  "  patai  "  or  question  the 
divinity.  The  morning  chosen  for  the  ceremony  seemed 
propitious.  The  sun  rose  with  resplendent  glory  as  the 
procession  headed  by  Patuki,  who  was  stark  naked,  issued 
from  the  gate  of  the  pa,  followed  by  the  old  Tohungas,  or 
priests,  his  equals,  whose  only  covering  was  a  narrow 
waist-band.  Behind  them  came  the  rest  of  the  inhabi- 
tants, men,  women,  and  children.  They  moved  slowly 
along  and  silently  till  they  reached  the  "  pae "  at 
Tuahiwi  (St.  Stephen's).  Having  removed  the  image 
from  the  box,  Patuki  squatted  on  his  heels  on  the 
ground,  the  other  Tohungas  sitting  in  like  manner  in  a 
semi-circle  behind  him  ;  and  the  general  public  behind 
them  again.  The  first  part  of  the  ceremony  consisted  in 
drawing  a  leaf  of  tussock  grass  from  any  plant  growing 
near  where  the  Tohunga  sat ;  if  it  broke,  that  was  a  bad 
omen,  and  they  would  not  proceed  any  further,  and 
would  defer  the  consultation.  If  it  came  up  by  the 
root  bringing  the  earth  with  it,  that  was  a  good  omen  ; 
and  the  Tohunga  proceeded  to  bind  the  Atua  with  a 
mystic  knot,  made  by  passing  the  grass  leaf  with  the 
left  hand  over  the  thumb  nail  of  the  right  hand  (because 
"  e  taha  maui  tia  ana  te  hon  o  te  Atua  ") ;  on  forming 
the  knot  the  projecting  part  of  the  grass  leaf  was  pulled 
tight,  and  if  it  broke  it  was  regarded  as  a  bad  omen,  and 
the  consultation  deferred.  Three  loops  were  made  in 
the  manner  described,  incantations  being  repeated  all  the 
time  by  the  questioner  and  an  assistant  Tohunga. 


Patuki  having  successfully  made  the  knots  which 
were  to  bind  Kahukura  to  the  image  for  a  sufficient  time 
to  secure  an  answer,  proceeded  to  dandle  the  image  in 
his  hand,  continuing  all  the  time  to  repeat  the  necessary 
invocations  to  the  Atua  to  enter  the  image  and  reveal  his 
presence.  When  the  proper  moment  arrived  the 
Tohunga  said  to  the  Atua,  Kai  te  haere  mai  tera  pia  au 
ki  te  patu  i  tenei  pia  au  "-  "  That  people  of  yours  is 
coming  to  kill  this  people  of  yours."  Three  times  he 
repeated  these  words  in  a  loud  voice,  swaying  about  and 
gradually  working  himself  into  a  state  of  frenzy.  After 
the  third  repetition  of  the  words,  the  whole  assembly 
present  took  them  up,  and  in  loud  and  frantic  tones 
implored  the  Atua  to  reveal  his  presence.  The  Tohungas, 
swaying  their  bodies  about,  contracted  their  stomachs 
with  a  sudden  movement,  to  quicken  the  expulsion  of 
the  air  from  their  lungs,  and  add  to  the  shrillness  and 
violence  of  their  cries. 

At  length  the  image  gave  evidence  that  the  Atua 
had  entered  it,  being  seen  to  rear  itself  up  and  sway 
from  side  to  side.  The  presence  of  attendant  spirits 
of  inferior  order  was  at  the  same  time  manifested  by 
the  suppressed  shrieks  uttered  by  the  surrounding 
Tohungas,  into  whose  bodies  the  spirits  had  entered; 
the  sounds  emitted  by  them  resembling  the  cries  uttered 
by  a  startled  girl.  The  excitement  now  became  intense, 
and  the  whole  crowd  of  worshippers  cried  aloud  to  the 
God,  '  That  pia  '  of  yours  is  coming  to  kill  this  '  pia  '  of 
yours,"  and  besought  him  to  indicate  in  some  way  what 
the  result  would  be.  The  image  reared  up,  and  then  fell 
forward  and  struck  the  ground  again  and  again,  once, 
twice,  thrice  (after  the  manner  of  Punch  in  the  popular 
show  of  that  name).  Again  the  people  raised  their 


voices  and  cried  aloud,  "  This  '  pia  of  yours  is  going  to 
kill  that  '  pia '  of  yours."  The  image  reared  itself 
up  against  Patuki's  shoulder ;  and  while  they  continued 
to  repeat  the  question,  the  image  fell  forward  and  rapped 
the  ground.  At  that  moment  one  of  the  Tohungas 
squatting  behind  Patuki,  struck  him  a  smart  blow  on  the 
back  of  the  head,  with  the  palm  of  his  hand ;  that  being 
the  recognised  method  of  closing  the  ceremony  of 
consulting  the  Atua. 

Instantly  the  image  became  perfectly  still,  for  the 
Atua  went  out  of  it,  followed  by  his  attendant  spirits, 
who  up  to  that  moment  had  possessed  the  bodies  of 
the  Tohungas  conducting  the  enquiry.  The  reason 
why  the  consultation  was  so  abruptly  terminated  was  to 
secure  a  favourable  omen.  The  image  striking  the  earth 
was  an  intimation  that  there  would  be  one  defeat, 
and  that  defeat,  those  who  were  consulting  the  oracle 
interpreted  to  mean,  would  befall  the  northern  forces. 
After  the  close  of  the  ceremony  the  image  was  replaced 
in  its  box,  amongst  the  flax  bushes,  and  most  of  the 
people  returned  to  the  pa.  A  few  hours  afterwards 
Te  Rauparaha's  men  were  scouring  the  country  and 
putting  all  stragglers  to  death. 

On  reaching  Double  Corner,  Te  Eauparaha  landed  and 
drew  up  his  war  canoes  above  high  water  mark ;  he  then 
marched  quickly  on  to  Kaiapoi,  hoping  to  surprise  the 
place  ;  but  in  this  he  failed,  as  news  of  his  approach  had 
reached  the  inhabitants  ;  nevertheless,  if  he  had  assaulted 
the  pa  whenever  he  arrived,  he  could  easily  have  taken 
it,  as  most  of  the  young  and  able-bodied  men  were 
absent,  having  gone  as  far  as  Port  Cooper  to  escort 
Taiaroa,  who  purposed  embarking  there  in  his  canoes  for 
Otakou ;  the  rest  of  the  inhabitants  were  scattered  over 


the  country  attending  to  their  cultivations.  It  was  the 
report  of  firearms,  coupled  with  the  warning  cries  of 
those  outside  the  fortifications,  who  had  caught  sight  of 
the  approaching  enemy,  which  warned  the  occupants  of 
the  pa,  who  were  mostly  old  men,  boys  and  women,  of 
their  danger.  They  immediately  closed  the  gates,  and 
made  a  brave  show  of  defence  along  the  walls. 

Fortunately  some  of  those  outside  the  fortress  suc- 
ceeded in  reaching  Port  Cooper  in  time  to  stop  Taiaroa, 
who  consented  to  return  and  relieve  the  besieged. 
Having  got  all  the  available  assistance  he  could  from  the 
Peninsula  natives,  he  marched  along  the  coast  to  the 
Waimakariri,  which  he  crossed  near  the  mouth  on  mokis, 
or  rafts  made  of  dry  flax  stalks.  But  fearing  his 
relieving  party  might  be  discovered  by  the  enemy  if  they 
approached  any  closer  by  daylight,  he  concealed  his  men 
in  the  scrub  on  the  river  bank  till  it  was  quite  dark, 
when  they  continued  their  march  along  the  beach  till 
they  got  opposite  to  Kaiapoi,  and  then  they  turned 

But  as  they  approached  the  pa  they  noticed  the 
enemy's  watch  fires,  and  men  standing  and  sitting 
around  them,  and  they  saw  at  a  glance,  that  to  attempt 
to  enter  the  place  on  the  land  side,  would  be  useless, 
as  the  whole  of  the  ground  on  that  side  of  the  pa  was 
occupied  by  the  enemy  in  force.  The  only  chance  of 
getting  in  was  by  wading  through  the  lagoon ;  but  there 
too  they  saw  sentries  posted  every  few  yards  on  the 
sand  ridges  bounding  its  margin,  and  how  to  pass  them 
without  detection  was  a  puzzle.  Te  Ata  o  Tu  was 
carrying  his  infant  son  on  his  back,  and  as  he  drew 
nearer  to  the  sentries  his  companions  whispered  to  him 
to  strangle  the  infant  rather  than  run  the  risk  of  its 


foiling  their  efforts  to  escape  the  notice  of  the  enemy, 
but  his  parental  instincts  were  too  strong.  It  was  his 
only  child,  and  a  boy,  and  he  could  not  kill  it,  but  to 
smother  its  cries  in  the  event  of  its  waking  at  a  critical 
moment,  he  rolled  it  up  in  a  thick  mat,  and  tied  it 
securely  across  his  shoulders,  and  in  that  way  carried  the 
little  thing  safely  through  all  the  dangers  of  that  terrible 
night ;  but  it  was  only  spared  to  meet  its  death  in 
the  waters  of  the  lagoon  a  few  months  afterwards,  when 
its  mother  vainly  tried  to  escape  from  the  fallen  pa. 

Fortunately  for  Taiaroa's  men  a  strong  nor'-west  wind 
was  blowing  which  waved  the  tall  tussock  grass  and 
sedge  which  covered  all  the  ground  about  them  violently 
backwards  and  forwards,  the  constant  wavy  motion 
concealing  from  the  sentries  the  bodies  of  the  men 
who  were  creeping  along  under  cover  of  the  vegetation. 
Whenever  the  wind  lulled,  the  relief  party  kept  perfectly 
still,  not  daring  to  move,  and  disposed  to  hold  their 
breath  for  fear  of  detection  by  the  sentries,  who  stood 
talking  within  a  few  feet  of  their  foes,  of  whose  presence 
they  were  quite  unconscious,  but  who  were  yet  near 
enough  to  hear  distinctly  all  that  they  said  to  one 
another.  The  whole  party  having  reached  at  last  the 
margin  of  the  lagoon,  they  rose  to  their  feet  and  plunged 
into  the  water  shouting  "Taiaroa!  to  the  rescue,"  and 
warning  their  friends  not  to  fire  upon  them. 

For  a  moment  the  besieged  thought  that  it  was  a 
stratagem  of  the  enemy,  and  poured  volley  after  volley 
amongst  them,  but  as  they  were  all  struggling  up  to 
their  necks  in  water  and  mud  no  harm  was  done,  the 
bullets  flying  over  their  heads.  As  they  drew  nearer 
their  voices  were  recognized,  and  a  warm  welcome 
accorded  to  them.  And  now  the  besieged  took  heart, 


and  prepared  not  only  for  defence,  but  for  carrying  on 
offensive  operations  against  the  enemy.  Whakauira 
was  appointed  to  take  charge  of  the  gate  Kaitangata, 
and  to  head  all  the  sorties  made  from  it ;  while  Weka 
held  the  same  charge  at  Hiakarere.  Other  parts  of  the 
defences  were  assigned  to  other  chiefs,  and  night  guards 
were  appointed. 

Just  outside  the  Kaitangata  gate  stood  a  watch-tower, 
from  which  the  besieged  could  look  into  the  enemy's 
camp.  It  was  built  like  a  whata,  on  a  tall  upright  post, 
and  the  walls  were  composed  of  slabs  of  wood  which  had 
been  tested  and  proved  to  be  bullet  proof.  Small  holes 
were  pierced  on  three  sides  to  enable  the  look-out  to  take 
observations,  This  watch-tower  proved  of  great  service 
in  guarding  the  besieged  from  sudden  attacks,  all  the 
enemy's  movements  being  visible  from  it. 

During  the  early  part  of  the  siege  Taiaroa  performed  a 
bold  deed,  which  deserved  to  achieve  greater  success 
than  it  did.  Taking  advantage  of  a  dark  stormy  night  he 
sallied  forth  with  a  few  companions,  and  made  for  the 
spot  near  the  mouth  of  the  Ashley,  where  Te  Bauparaha's 
fleet,  consisting  of  nearly  thirty  canoes,  had  lately  been 
brought  and  drawn  up,  with  the  intention  of  destroying 
them ;  but  having  only  small,  light  hatchets  they  found 
the  task  which  they  had  undertaken  beyond  their  power, 
and  had  to  content  themselves  with  hacking  the  cordage 
which  fastened  the  cross  ties,  and  seats,  and  side  boards, 
and  so  rendering  them  unseaworthy  till  repaired.  But 
the  soaking  rain  defeated  all  their  efforts  to  burn  the 
canoes,  and  so  the  brave  fellows  had  to  return  without 
effecting  anything  commensurate  with  the  risk  they  had 


Three  months  passed  and  still  the  siege  continued. 
Te  Eauparaha  then  adopted  different  tactics,  which  were 
probably  suggested  by  the  words  of  the  Seer's  song  : — 
"  Embrace  it,  clasp  it  tightly  ;  "  and  he  commenced  to  sap 
up  to  the  walls  and  opened  three  trenches  parallel  to  one 
another.  He  lost  a  great  many  men  at  first  owing  to 
their  being  exposed  to  a  continuous  fire  from  the  pa,  but 
by  covering  the  trenches  and  carrying  them  forward  in  a 
zig-zag  direction  he  got  at  last  within  a  few  feet  of  the 

It  was  during  the  progress  of  this  approach  that  Te 
Ata  o  Tu — known  to  the  colonists  as  '  Old  Jacob,"  and 
much  respected  by  them  for  his  sterling  qualities — 
increased  his  reputation  for  courage  by  his  successful 
encounter  with  Pehi  Tahau,  one  of  the  northern  warriors. 
The  narrative  of  the  encounter  is  best  told  in  Hakopa's 
own  words: — "Towards  the  close  of  the  siege,  after 
standing  sentry  at  the  foot  of  the  watch-tower,  all  one 
stormy  night,  during  which  heavy  showers  of  rain  had 
fallen,  and  being  very  wet  and  very  sleepy,  I  was  dozing 
with  my  head  resting  upon  my  hands,  which  were 
supported  by  the  barrel  of  my  gun,  when  I  was  roused  by 
a  hand  on  my  shoulder,  and  a  voice  whispering  in  my 
ear,  '  Are  you  asleep  ?'  I  confessed  I  was,  and  asked 
if  anything  was  the  matter.  My  questioner,  who  was 
one  of  our  bravest  leaders,  said,  Yes,  the  enemy  have 
planned  an  attack,  and  I  wish  a  sortie  to  be  made  at 
once  to  repel  it,  will  you  take  command  ?'  I  readily 
consented  on  condition  that  I  should  choose  my  own 
men.  He  agreed ;  and  I  picked  out  six  of  the  bravest 
men  I  knew,  and  got  them  to  the  gate  without  arousing 
the  rest  of  our  people.  I  told  my  men  to  wait  while  I 
and  another  reconnoitred. 


"  We  entered  the  sap  and  approached  the  shed  where 
the  attacking  party,  numbering  about  two  hundred,  were 
•sleeping  awaiting  the  dawn.  They  were  lying  all  close 
together  like  herrings  in  a  shoal.  I  motioned  to  my 
men  to  come  on.  Just  at  that  moment  one  of  them  who 
had  gone  down  another  trench,  called  out,  '  Let  us  go 
back,  I  have  taken  spoil,  a  club,  a  belt,  and  a  cartouche 
box.'  The  result  of  this  injudicious  outcry  was  very 
•different  from  what  might  have  been  anticipated. 
Startled  by  the  sound  of  his  voice,  our  sleeping  foes 
sprang  to  their  feet,  and  immediately  bolted  panic  struck 
in  the  direction  of  their  main  camp. 

'  The  coast  was  now  quite  clear  for  me,  and  emerging 
from  the  trench  I  proceeded  cautiously  in  the  direction 
taken  by  the  runaways.  I  had  not  gone  far  before  I 
noticed  the  figure  of  a  man  a  short  distance  in  front  of 
me.  He  had  nothing  on  but  a  small  waist-mat,  and  was 
armed  with  a  fowling  piece ;  and  walking  beside  him 
was  a  woman,  who  from  the  way  he  kept  pushing  her 
forward,  seemed  unwilling  to  accompany  him.  Happen- 
ing to  look  round,  he  caught  sight  of  me,  and  immediately 
cried  out  to  his  fleeing  companions,  '  Come  back  !  come 
back  and  catch  this  man,  he  is  all  alone.' 

But  as  no  one  did  come  back  in  answer  to  his  appeal, 
and  as  I  heard  no  answering  call  made,  I  felt  confident 
that  I  had  nothing  to  fear  at  the  moment  from  his 
comrades,  who  were  not  likely  to  come  to  his  aid  till  it 
was  quite  light ;  and  that  if  I  could  only  close  with  him, 
I  might  overcome  him,  and  have  the  satisfaction  of 
•carrying  his  dead  body  back  with  me  into  the  pa.  I 
determined  therefore  to  try  and  force  an  encounter  at 
-close  quarters ;  my  only  fear  was  that  he  might  shoot  me 
before  I  could  grapple  with  him.  I  had  only  a  tomahawk 


on  a  long  handle,  having  left  iny  own  gun  behind, 
because  the  charge  in  it  was  wet  from  the  previous 
night's  rain.  The  ground  we  were  passing  over  was 
covered  with  large  tufts  of  tussock  grass,  and  I  leapt 
from  one  to  another  to  deaden  the  sound  of  my  footsteps,, 
squatting  down  whenever  I  saw  the  man  turning  round 
to  look  at  me.  I  kept  following  him  in  this  way  for 
several  hundred  yards ;  fortunately  he  did  not  keep 
moving  towards  Te  Rauparaha's  camp,  but  in  a  different 

"  By  dint  of  great  agility  and  caution  I  got  within  a  few 
feet  of  him,  when  he  turned  suddenly  round  and  pushed 
the  woman  between  us,  and  instantly  fired.  It  seemed 
to  me  at  that  moment  as  if  I  were  looking  down  the 
barrel  of  his  gun.  I  squatted  as  quickly  as  I  could  on 
the  ground  ;  fortunately  there  was  a  slight  depression  of 
the  surface  where  I  stood,  and  that  saved  my  life.  The 
flame  of  the  charge  set  fire  to  my  hair,  and  the  ball 
grazed  my  scalp ;  for  a  moment  I  felt  stunned,  and 
thought  I  was  mortally  wounded.  My  opponent  kept 
shouting  for  assistance  which  never  came  ;  for  his  panic- 
stricken  companions  I  afterwards  learnt,  were  at  the 
very  time  up  to  their  necks  in  water  in  an  adjoining 
swamp,  clinging  in  their  terror  to  the  niggerheads  for 
support,  their  fears  having  magnified  my  little  party 
of  followers  into  an  army. 

"  The  shouts  of  my  opponent  recalled  me  to  my  senses,. 
and  recovering  from  the  shock  I  had  received,  I  made  a 
second  attempt  to  grapple  with  him,  but  without  success ; 
as  before  he  slipped  behind  the  woman  again,  and  aimed 
his  gun  at  me ;  I  stooped,  and  the  bullet  flew  over  my 
shoulder.  We  were  now  on  equal  terms,  and  I  had  no 
longer  to  exercise  such  excessive  caution  in  attacking 


him.  I  struck  at  him  with  my  hatchet,  he  tried  to  parry 
the  blow  with  the  butt  end  of  his  gun,  but  failed,  and  I 
buried  my  weapon  in  his  neck  near  the  collar  bone. 
He  fell  forward  at  once,  and  I  seized  him  by  the  legs  and 
lifted  him  on  to  my  shoulder,  intending  to  carry  him  out 
of  the  reach  of  rescue  by  his  own  people. 

"  It  was  now  quite  light  enough  to  see  what  was  going 
on,  and  I  could  not  expect  to  escape  much  longer  the 
notice  of  the  sentries  guarding  Te  Rauparaha's  camp. 
Just  then,  one  of  my  companions,  who  had  mustered 
sufficient  courage  to  follow  me,  came  up  to  where  I  was ; 
and  seeing  signs  of  life  in  the  body  I  was  carrying,  ran  it 
through  with  his  spear  ;  and  at  the  same  time  drew  my 
attention  to  the  movements  of  a  party  of  the  enemy ; 
who  were  evidently  trying  to  intercept  our  return  to  the 
pa.  Hampered  by  the  weight  of  my  prize,  I  could  not 
get  over  the  ground  as  quickly  as  our  pursuers,  but  I  was 
loathe  to  lose  the  opportunity  of  presenting  to  my 
superior  officers  such  unmistakable  evidence  of  my 
prowess  as  a  warrior ;  and  I  struggled  on  with  my 
burden  till  I  saw  it  was  hopeless  to  think  of  reaching 
the  pa  with  it,  when  I  threw  it  on  the  ground,  con- 
tenting myself  with  the  waist-belt,  gun,  and  ear 
ornaments  of  my  conquered  foe,  and  made  the  best 
of  my  way  into  the  fortress,  where  I  was  received  with 
shouts  of  welcome  from  the  people,  and  very  compli- 
mentary acknowledgements  of  my  courage  from  my 

'  I  owed  my  life  at  the  fall  of  Kaiapoi  to  that  morning's 
encounter ;  for  when  I  was  lying  bound  hand  and  foot 
along  with  a  crowd  of  other  prisoners  after  the  capture 
of  the  pa,  Te  Eauparaha  strolled  amongst  us  enquiring 
whether  the  man  whd  killed  his  chief,  Pehi  Tahau,  was 



amongst  our  number.  On  my  being  pointed  out  to  him 
as  the  person  he  was  in  search  of,  instead  of  handing  me 
over,  as  I  fully  expected  he  was  going  to  do,  to  the 
relatives  of  my  late  foe,  to  be  tortured  and  put  to  death 
by  them,  he  addressed  me  in  most  complimentary  terms, 
saying  I  was  too  brave  a  man  to  be  put  to  death  in  the 
general  massacre  which  was  taking  place ;  that  I  had 
fought  fairly,  and  won  the  victory  ;  and  that  he  meant 
to  spare  my  life,  and  hoped  that  I  would  in  time  to  come 
render  him  as  a  return  for  his  clemency  some  good 
service  on  the  battle-fields  of  the  North  Island." 

Finding  it  hopeless  to  think  of  taking  Kaiapoi  by 
assault,  in  the  ordinary  way,  Te  Eauparaha  conceived  the 
idea  of  burning  down  the  defences  of  the  pa  on  the  land 
side.  To  effect  this  object,  he  ordered  his  men  to  collect 
the  manuka  bushes  which  grew  in  profusion  all  about 
the  neighbouring  sandhills,  and  after  tying  them  in  small 
bundles,  to  stack  them  in  a  convenient  place  to  dry. 
Having  accumulated  a  quantity  sufficient  for  his  purpose, 
the  next  step  was  to  place  the  dry  brushwood  against 
the  wooden  walls  of  the  pa.  But  this  proved  a  more 
dangerous  and  difficult  task  than  he  had  at  first  antici- 
pated, and  many  of  his  men  sacrificed  their  lives  while 
attempting  to  carry  out  his  directions.  The  bundles  of 
manuka  were  carried  as  far  as  they  could  be  under  cover 
of  the  trenches,  and  then  thrown  forward ;  and  it  was 
while  in  this  act  of  throwing  them  that  the  besiegers 
exposed  themselves  to  the  deadly  fire  of  the  defenders, 
who,  standing  only  a  few  feet  away,  were  able  to  con- 
centrate their  aim  upon  the  small  space  at  the  end  of 
each  trench,  where  the  person  hurling  the  manuka  was 
obliged  to  stand.  For  awhile  the  besieged  inhabitants 
succeeded  in  scattering  every  night  the  work  done  by 


their  enemies  at  such  a  cost  of  life  during  the  previous 
day.  But  the  accumulation  of  dried  manuka  all  about 
the  front  of  the  pa  became  so  great  at  last  that  it  was 
altogether  beyond  their  power  to  disturb  it,  and  the  huge 
pile  rose  higher  day  by  day  till  it  filled  the  trench  and 
rested  far  up  the  stockade  wall.  The  miserable  in- 
habitants now  saw  that  their  relentless  enemy  was 
gaining  upon  them,  and  knowing  that  if  he  once  got  rid 
of  the  protecting  walls  their  lives  would  be  at  his  mercy, 
they  became  greatly  depressed,  and  many  of  the  younger 
men  began  to  discuss  the  advisability  of  escaping  before 
the  impending  catastrophe  happened.  Taiaroa  was  the 
first  to  move,  and  under  cover  of  darkness  he  withdrew 
the  contingent  of  Otakou  men  under  his  command, 
promising  his  desponding  friends  whom  he  left  behind 
him,  that  he  would  try  and  create  a  diversion  in  their 
favour  by  attacking  Te  Rauparaha's  camp  from  without, 
when  an  opportunity  would  be  afforded  them  of  getting 
rid  of  the  cause  of  their  immediate  alarm ;  but  this 
promise  he  was  never  able  to  fulfil.  Every  hour  after 
he  left  the  peril  of  the  besieged  increased,  and  the 
suspense  became  intolerable.  Southward  rose  the  vast 
pile  of  brushwood  to  be  set  fire  to  by  their  enemies 
on  the  first  favourable  opportunity. 

At  length  the  fatal  day  arrived :  a  nor'-wester  sprung 
up,  and  blew  with  increasing  violence  for  some  hours. 
Everyone  felt  certain  that  it  would  be  succeeded  by  a 
sou' -wester,  as  was  then  invariably  the  case,  when  the 
fate  of  the  pa  would  be  sealed.  There  was  just  a  chance 
that  if  the  manuka  were  lit  from  the  inside,  the  flames 
would  be  carried  away  from  the  pa,  and  the  menacing 
mass  of  inflammable  material  destroyed  before  it  could 
do  any  serious  harm.  Pureko,  one  of  the  chiefs  in 


charge  of  the  threatened  portion  of  the  defences, 
determined  to  run  the  risk ;  and  seizing  a  firebrand, 
thrust  it  into  the  heap.  In  a  moment  the  flames  shot 
high  up  into  the  air,  flaring  and  waving  in  the  wind. 
For  a  short  time  it  seemed  as  if  the  experiment  was 
going  to  prove  successful ;  but  all  at  once,  with  the 
rapidity  which  usually  characterizes  the  change  of  wind 
from  north  to  south  on  the  Canterbury  Plains,  it  veered 
round  to  the  opposite  point  of  the  compass,  and  drove 
the  fierce  flames  against  the  post  and  palisades,  which 
were  soon  ablaze  and  crashing  to  the  ground.  Blinding 
smoke  enveloped  the  whole  place,  and  the  defenders 
were  compelled  to  fall  back  from  the  wall  to  escape 

Te  Eauparaha  and  his  men  were  on  the  alert,  ready  to 
take  advantage  of  the  turn  affairs  had  taken  ;  and  before 
the  inhabitants  of  the  pa  could  fully  realize  what  had 
happened,  the  northern  warriors  were  in  the  midst  of 
them.  The  wildest  confusion  and  disorder  ensued. 
Pureko,  who  was  the  immediate  agent  in  causing  the 
disaster  was  the  first  to  fall,  being  disembowelled  by  a 
gunshot.  The  venerable  Te  Auta,  the  High  Priest  of  the 
tribe,  whose  long  white  hair  and  beard,  and  generally 
imposing  appearance  had  rendered  him  for  many  years 
past  an  object  of  terror  to  the  youth  of  the  pa,  fell  at  the 
Tuahu,  where  with  the  image  of  Kahukura  in  his  hands, 
he  vainly  besought  the  patron  divinity  of  the  tribe  to 
help  them  in  their  hour  of  need. 

Many  of  the  inhabitants  made  for  the  Huirapa  gate, 
because  the  bridge  which  led  from  it  gave  access  to  the 
swamps  covered  with  flax,  niggerheads,  and  raupo,  under 
cover  of  which  lay  their  only  hope  of  escape.  Others 
climbed  over  the  fences,  and  plunging  into  the  lagoon 


waded  or  swam  to  the  friendly  shelter  of  the  bordering 
vegetation ;  the  smoke,  driven  by  the  wind,  over  the 
surface  of  the  water,  screening  them  while  so  engaged, 
from  the  observation  of  the  enemy.  In  this  way 
probably  two  hundred  succeeded  in  making  good  their 
escape  by  keeping  in  the  swamps  till  they  got  well  up 
the  plains,  when  they  worked  their  way  towards  Banks 
Peninsula  and  other  places  inhabited  by  their  friends. 

Shrieks  and  cries  of  despair  rose  within  the  pa  as  the 
northern  men  struck  down  their  aged  victims,  or  seized 
and  bound  some  trembling  youth  or  maiden  to  be 
despatched  later  on,  or  to  be  carried  far  away  into 
captivity.  When  all  were  either  killed,  or  securely 
bound,  the  conquerors  adjourned  to  their  camp,  situated 
on  the  spot  now  known  as  Massacre* Hill, :':  on  the  North 
Eoad,  where  the  captives  were  finally  disposed  of. 
Those  devoted  to  the  manes  of  the  dead  were  fastened  to 
poles,  erected  on  the  summit  of  the  knoll,  and  bled  to 
death,  their  bodies  being  afterwards  removed  to  be  cooked 
and  eaten  in  accordance  with  the  national  custom,  which 
required  this  indignity  to  be  offered  to  the  dead  in  order 
to  complete  the  humiliation  of  the  conquered. 

The  total  population  of  the  Kaiapoi  Pa  at  the  time  of 
its  capture,  cannot  have  been  far  short  of  a  thousand 
souls.  Of  these,  a  part  made  good  their  escape,  a  part 
perished,  and  a  considerable  number  were  carried  off  by 
the  conquerors  to  Kapiti. 

Among  the  captives  was  a  handsome  lad  named  Pura, 
(known  to  Lyttelton  residents  as  Pitama)  who  took  Te 
Rauparaha's  fancy,  and  was  led  by  him  into  his  whare. 

*  When  the  Eev.  John  Baven,  one  of  the  Canterbury  pilgrims  took 
possession  of  the  land  in  the  neighbourhood  of  this  knoll,  the  whole 
surface  of  the  ground  between  it  and  the  lagoon  was  strewn  with  human 
remains  and  weapons  of  all  sorts.  Mr.  Eaven  caused  the  bones  to  be 
collected,  and  about  two  waggon-loads  were  buried  by  his  orders  in  a  pit  at 
the  base  of  the  sandhill,  which  has  since  been  almost  levelled.  The 
remains  of  the  houses  and  fortifications  of  Kaiapoi  were  destroyed  by  the 
fires  lit  to  clear  the  land  for  farming  purposes. 


To  prevent  his  escaping  during  the  night,  the  old  chief 
tied  a  stout  cord  round  the  boy's  body  and  fastened  the 
end  of  it  to  his  own  wrist.  During  the  early  part  of  the 
night  Te  Eauparaha  was  wakeful,  and  kept  pulling  the 
cord  to  assure  himself  that  his  prisoner  was  safe  ;  but 
when  sleep  overpowered  him  the  cord  relaxed,  and  the 
boy  who  was  watching  all  the  time  for  an  opportunity  to 
escape,  successfully  disengaged  himself  from  his  bonds, 
and  having  fastened  the  check  string  to  a  peg  which  he 
found  in  the  floor,  he  crept  cautiously  out  of  the  hut.  It 
was  too  dark  for  him  to  distinguish  anything,  and  as  he 
passed  out  he  overthrew  a  pile  of  brushwood,  which 
slipped  down  and  completely  covered  him. 

Old  Rauparaha  roused  by  the  noise  sprang  to  his  feet, 
and  immediately  discovered  the  trick  which  had  been 
played  upon  him.  He  at  once  gave  the  alarm,  and 
roused  the  whole  camp.  Suddenly  awakened  from 
profound  sleep  induced  by  weariness  after  the  violent 
exertion  and  excitement  of  the  previous  day,  and  by  the 
sense  of  security  ensured  by  victory,  the  northern 
warriors  were  in  just  the  condition  to  give  away  to  panic, 
and  it  was  well  for  them  that  the  circumstance  which 
caused  the  disturbance  in  their  camp  proved  after  all  to 
be  of  such  a  trivial  nature.  With  loud  shouts  and  cries 
the  men  rushed  hither  and  thither  in  wild  confusion, 
some  calling  out  that  the  prisoners  had  escaped,  others 
that  the  camp  was  being  attacked  by  their  friends,  who 
were  attempting  to  rescue  them.  Torches  were  lit  and 
seen  flashing  in  all  directions,  guns  were  fired,  and  the 
greatest  commotion  prevailed  everywhere. 

All  the  time  this  uproar  was  going  on,  the  cause  of  it 
was  lying  perfectly  still  under  the  fallen  pile  of  brush- 
wood, beside  the  commander-in-chief's  hut.  He  knew 
that  if  discovered  he  would  be  immediately  put  to  death, 


as  it  was  an  unpardonable  offence  for  a  prisoner  to 
attempt  to  escape.  Escape,  however,  at  such  a  moment 
was  impossible,  and  poor  Pura  lay  in  the  greatest  state 
of  terror  and  alarm,  expecting  every  moment  that  his 
hiding  place  would  be  found  out.  Fortunately  for  him 
that  was  not  to  be;  and  when  the  alarm  subsided  and 
stillness  once  more  reigned  around,  he  quietly  extricated 
himself  from  his  uncomfortable  position,  and  groped  his 
way  out  of  the  camp  into  the  surrounding  flax  swamps, 
under  cover  of  which  he  escaped ;  journeying  south- 
wards till  he  fell  in  with  the  main  body  of  the  fugitives, 
who  were  travelling  on  in  the  same  direction  till  they 
reached  a  place  of  safety. 

He  was  more  fortunate  in  this  respect  than  a  boy  of 
eight  years  and  a  girl  of  five,  who  got  separated  from 
their  friends  on  the  march,  and  were  not  found  for 
several  months  afterwards,  when  an  eeling  party  came 
upon  them  in  the  river-bed  of  the  Waikiriki  (Selwyn). 
These  two  children  known  in  after  years  as  Charley  Wi 
and  Mrs.  Wi  Naihira,  were  told  by  their  father  to  rest  on 
the  bank  of  the  river  while  he  went  in  search  of  food  for 
them,  but  he  never  returned,  having  probably  fallen  into 
the  hands  of  Te  Eauparaha's  men,  who  were  scouring  the 
country  in  all  directions  for  fugitives.  Left  to  shift  for 
themselves,  they  managed  to  sustain  life  by  eating  raupo 
roots,  and  the  tender  shoots  of  the  ti-palm,  and  the  small 
fish  which  they  caught  in  the  shallows  and  under  the 
stones.  They  found  shelter  from  the  weather  under  the 
large  flax  bushes  which  lined  the  river  bank,  and  by 
cuddling  together  under  a  heap  of  dry  grass,  which  they 
had  collected,  they  managed  to  keep  themselves  warm  in 
spite  of  their  scanty  clothing,  which  consisted  of  one 
short  mat  each,  about  the  size  of  an  ordinary  door  mat, 
and  rather  like  one  in  appearance,  though  softer. 




A  few  days  after  the  capture  of  Kaiapoi,  Te  Eauparaha, 
having  repaired  the  damage  done  to  his  canoes,  embarked 
his  army  and  the  prisoners  he  meant  to  take  with  him, 
and  sailed  for  Akaroa  Harbour,  with  the  intention  of 
attacking  the  fortress  of  Onawe,  and  completing  the 
destruction  of  Tamaiharanui's  kinsman.  Finding  on  his 
arrival  there  that  the  pa  was  strongly  fortified,  and  likely 
to  be  bravely  defended,  and  not  relishing  the  idea  of 
undertaking  another  prolonged  siege,  he  resorted  to 

Accompanied  by  the  most  distinguished  of  the  Kaiapoi 
prisoners,  he  approached  the  gate  of  Onawe,  and  began 
parleying  with  some  of  the  defenders,  whom  he  advised 
to  surrender  the  pa,  and  trust  to  his  clemency,  appealing 
to  the  presence  of  so  many  Kaiapoi  prisoners  as  a  proof 
that  they  might  trust  his  promise  to  spare  their  lives. 
While  this  talking  was  going  on,  the  gate  was  opened  to 
admit  some  men  returning  from  an  unsuccessful  skirmish. 
In  the  crowd  gathered  about  the  gate  were  some  of 
Te  Eauparaha's  men,  who,  in  obedience  to  secret 
instructions  from  him,  had  crept  up  unnoticed  to  where 
he  stood,  and  succeeded  in  entering  the  pa  without  being 
recognised.  Once  within  the  fortress,  they  commenced 
killing  everyone  about  them,  a  panic  ensued,  and  in  a 
few  minutes  Onawe  was  taken. 


Te  Eauparaha  having  established  his  object,  gave  his 
warriors  permission  to  return  to  the  north,  and  having 
received  directions  where  to  rendezvous  on  the  coast, 
several  war  canoes  put  to  sea  at  once.  The  one  com- 
manded by  Te  Hiko,*  chief  of  the  Ngatiawa  contingent, 
not  being  quite  sea  worthy,  was  beached  for  repairs  at 
Okaruru  (Gough's  Bay).  Amongst  the  prisoners  Te 
Hiko  had  with  him  was  Tangatahara,  or  "  ugly  man,"  so 
nick-named  years  before  by  a  lady  who  resented  his  too 
persistent  attentions  to  her.  He  was  a  renowned 
warrior,  and  the  late  commander  of  the  fortress  of 
Onawe.  He  was  particularly  obnoxious  to  Te  Eauparaha 
owing  to  the  fact  that  it  was  by  his  hand  that  the  great 
Te  Pehi  fell  at  Kaiapoi. 

While  Te  Hiko  was  engaged  repairing  his  canoe,  a 
•detachment  of  Te  Eauparaha's  body-guard  who  had  been 
searching  the  neighbouring  hills  and  forests  for  fugitives 
oarne  upon  the  scene.  They  were  accompanied  by  two 
women,  near  relations  of  the  great  chief,  who  on 
recognising  Tangatahara  as  the  man  with  whom  their 
family  had  a  blood-feud,  according  to  custom  demanded 
his  surrender,  exclaiming  "  Light  an  oven,  we  must  have 
.a  feast,  here  is  our  man  !  "  Te  Hiko  resented  this  inter- 
ference with  his  rights  as  captor  of  the  noted  prisoner, 
and  refused  to  give  him  up,  and  to  prevent  his  being 
molested  placed  a  guard  of  his  own  men  round  him.  At 
the  same  time  he  ordered  a  plentiful  supply  of  food  to  be 
given  to  his  superior  officers'  friends,  hoping  thereby  to 
-conciliate  them,  and  to  divert  their  thoughts  from  the 
man  whom  he  had  taken  under  his  protection. 

The  women  of  the  party  were  not,  however,  easily 
appeased  and  drawn  from  their  purpose.  They  persisted 

*  He  was  the  son  of  Te  Pehi,  which  made  his  treatment  of  Tangata 
hara  all  the  more  noteworthy. 


for  a  long  time  in  pressing  their  demand ;  but  finding 
Te  Hiko  firm  in  his  refusal,  they  begged  since  they 
might  not  kill  the  Ngaitahu  man,  to  be  allowed  to  strike 
his  head  with  the  kauru  fibre  they  were  chewing,  and  so 
degrade  him  by  pretending  to  use  his  head  as  a  relish  for 
their  kauru.  This  request  was  granted,  whereupon  the 
two  women  went  up  to  the  prisoner  who  was  seated  on 
the  ground  in  the  midst  of  a  group  of  Ngatiawa  warriors, 
and  struck  him  several  times  on  the  top  of  the  head  with 
the  kauru,  which  they  then  proceeded  to  chew.  Te  Hiko 
was  very  much  vexed  by  the  disregard  shown  to  his 
wishes  by  Te  Eauparaha's  relatives,  and  made  up  his 
mind  there  and  then  to  release  Tangatahara  as  soon  as 
they  were  gone. 

Accordingly  during  the  night  he  roused  him,  and  told 
him  he  might  escape,  which  he  did  very  easily  as  the 
camp  was  situated  on  the  edge  of  the  forest,  which  then 
covered  the  greater  part  of  Banks  Peninsula.  His 
escape  encouraged  a  female  prisoner,  who,  under  the 
charge  of  two  women,  had  been  taken  to  the  outskirts  of 
the  forest  to  collect  firewood,  to  attempt  flight.  In  order 
that  those  in  charge  of  her  might  grow  accustomed  to 
losing  sight  of  her  person,  she  kept  in  front  of  them,  and 
never  picked  up  a  stick  unless  it  was  lying  in  such  a 
position  behind  a  tree  or  shrub  that  in  stooping  to  get  it 
she  got  out  of  their  sight ;  gradually  she  increased  the 
distance  between  herself  and  her  guardians,  and  reached 
the  base  of  the  cliff,  on  the  western  side  of  the  Bay. 
Observing  a  strong  woodbine  hanging  over  the  face  of  a 
steep  rock  she  seized  it,  and  drew  herself  up  by  it  to  the 
top,  pulling  the  woodbine  up  after  her  to  prevent  her 
pursuers  using  it ;  she  then  scrambled  away  with  all 
speed  up  the  steep  hill  side,  spurred  on  in  her  efforts  to 


escape  by  the  shrill  cries  of  her  mortified  keepers,  who 
were  calling  aloud  upon  the  men  to  go  in  pursuit  of  her; 
but  she  succeeded  in  reaching  the  shelter  of  the  dense 
forest  where  all  trace  of  her  whereabouts  was  lost,  and 
after  a  time  rejoined  her  friends  in  safety. 

Before  the  northern  fleet  got  finally  clear  of  Banks 
Peninsula,  a  considerable  number  of  prisoners  escaped, 
the  chief  person  among  them  being  Te  Hori,  known  in 
after  years  as  the  highly  respected  native  magistrate  of 
Kaiapoi ;  the  only  man  of  acknowledged  learning  left 
amongst  the  Ngaitahu,  after  Te  Eauparaha's  last  raid. 

Fortunately  for  the  Kaiapoi  captives  who  were  taken 
to  Kapiti,  Te  Eauparaha  on  returning  home,  found  himself 
involved  in  quarrels  with  some  of  the  tribes  on  the 
mainland,  whose  territory  he  had  appropriated,  and 
this  disposed  him  to  treat  his  prisoners  with  more 
consideration  than  he  might  otherwise  have  done. 
Amongst  others  of  them  whom  he  employed  in  positions 
of  trust,  was  Te  Ata  o  Tu,  the  warrior  who  had  attracted 
his  favourable  notice  during  the  siege  of  Kaiapoi,  by 
engaging  in  combat  with  one  of  his  officers,  and  over- 
coming him.  This  man  Te  Eauparaha  sent  on  one  occasion 
with  an  important  message  to  the  chiefs  of  Waikanae, 
and  on  the  way  there  a  circumstance  occurred  which 
tried  his  courage  and  ability  to  meet  any  emergency, 
almost  as  much  as  his  encounter  with  Pehi  Tahau  in  the 
outskirts  of  Kaiapoi  had  done. 

Accompanied  by  his  little  son,  a  boy  of  six  years 
(Simeon  Pohata),  he  crossed  in  a  canoe  to  the  mainland, 
and  started  to  walk  along  the  beach  to  Waikanae.  When 
he  had  accomplished  about  a  third  of  the  journey,  he 
heard  a  bull  bellowing  close  by,  and  soon  afterwards  saw 
the  animal  trotting  rapidly  towards  him.  He  realised  at 


once  the  dangerous  predicament  he  was  in  ;  for  he  had  no 
doubt  that  the  animal  now  approaching  him  was  the  same 
about  which  he  had  heard  very  alarming  stories.  It  was 
once  a  village  pet,  but  had  taken  to  the  bush,  and  ever 
since  it  had  done  so,  it  always  chased  any  persons  it 
came  across,  and  it  had  already  crippled  a  good  many 
people.  Te  Ata's  first  thought  was  for  the  safety  of  his 
boy ;  but  what  could  he  do  ?  An  endless  stretch  of 
sandy  beach  lay  before  and  behind  him ;  to  the  right  lay 
the  open  sea ;  to  the  left  bare  sandhills. 

To  run  away  would  only  encourage  the  bull  to  quicken 
his  pace,  and  hasten  the  approaching  catastrophe.  For 
a  moment  his  case  seemed  hopeless,  when  he  espied 
some  slabs  lying  above  high  water  mark  at  the  foot  of  a 
sandhill.  If  he  could  only  reach  them  in  time,  he  might 
yet  save  his  boy  ;  taking  him  by  the  hand  he  hurried  to 
the  spot,  and  set  five  or  six  of  them  on  end  against  the 
sand  hillock,  and  got  behind  them  just  as  the  bull  came 
up.  The  beast  stood  for  a  few  moments  bellowing  and 
pawing  the  sand,  and  walked  by  sniffing  at  the  planks. 
He  did  this  several  times,  but  the  moment  he  caught 
sight  of  the  man  crouching  behind  the  slabs,  he 
charged  them  furiously,  and  tossed  them  over  with  his 

Te  Ata  snatching  up  the  child  sprang  from  under,  and 
as  the  bull  charged  past  him,  he  quickly  replaced  two  of 
the  slabs,  and  put  the  boy  behind  them,  telling  him 
in  the  event  of  his  escaping,  to  make  for  Waikanae,  and 
inform  the  people  there  of  what  had  happened  to  his 
father.  The  bull  seeing  him  standing  close  by  did  not  at 
once  rush  at"  him  ;  but  with  head  bent  low,  bellowed  and 
growled  within  a  few  feet  of  where  he  stood,  as  if  getting 
up  his  courage'  for  the  attack. 


Te  Ata  made  up  his  mind  at  that  moment  what  to  do ; 
and  springing  to  the  side  of  the  astonished  animal,  he 
put  his  right  arm  round  the  base  of  the  bull's  neck, 
and  pressed  his  body  against  his  shoulder.  The  bull 
tossed  his  head  and  tried  to  strike  the  man  with  his 
horns,  but  in  vain  ;  the  man  was  too  agile  and  quick 
in  his  movements,  and  as  he  pressed  with  all  his 
strength  against  the  bull's  shoulder,  the  animal  kept 
shifting  his  position,  and  moved  slowly  down  towards 
the  sea.  The  tide  was  coming  in,  and  soon  swept  over 
the  spot  where  they  stood. 

Te  Ata  noticed  a  pukio,  or  niggerhead,  floating  on  the 
incoming  waves,  and  as  it  swept  past  him,  he  seized  it, 
and  made  a  dash  for  the  breakers,  into  which  he 
plunged  dragging  the  niggerhead  after  him.  The  bull 
followed,  and  kept  so  close  behind  him  that  he  narrowly 
escaped  being  gored  by  it,  but  by  continually ''  diving 
in  different  directions  he  managed  to  widen  the  distance 
between  himself  and  his  tormentor  ;  but  nothing  seemed 
to  turn  the  brute  from  his  purpose,  and  he  appeared 
as  much  at  home  in  the  water  as  on  land.  Loosening 
his  shaggy  waist  mat,  Te  Ata  fastened  it  round  the 
niggerhead,  and  took  several  long  dives  before  he 
ventured  to  look  round,  when  to  his  intense  relief,  he  saw 
the  bull  engaged  with  the  niggerhead,  which  he  was 
pawing  at,  and  poking  with  its  horns,  apparently  under 
the  impression  that  he  had  at  last  caught  his  man. 

Leaving  the  vicious  beast  to  expend  its  spite  on  the 
pukio,  Te  Ata  swam  some  distance  down  the  coast,  and 
then  drew  in  towards  the  shore,  and  walked  along  through 
the  surf  till  he  thought  he  could  emerge  with  safety  from 
the  water,  and  pursue  his  journey  on  terra  firma.  About 
two  miles  down  the  coast  he  passed  a  canoe  drawn  up  on 


the  beach,  and  noticed  his  little  boy  lying  asleep  in  the 
stern  of  it,  fright  and  fatigue  having  quite  overcome  the 
child.  Taking  him  on  his  back,  he  pursued  his  journey 
to  Waikanae,  where  he  soon  after  arrived  without  any 
further  misadventure. 




As  soon  as  the  fugitives  from  Kaiapoi  had  sufficiently 
recovered  from  the  terrible  shock  which  their  feelings 
had  sustained  from  their  crushing  defeat,  they  commenced 
to  organize  an  expedition  for  the  purpose  of  avenging  the 
destruction  of  their  pa  and  people.  Their  cause  was 
warmly  espoused  by  their  kinsman  in  the  south,  who 
were  so  impatient  to  carry  out  the  project  of  revenge 
that  two  hundred  and  seventy  of  them  started  northwards 
under  the  leadership  of  Tuhawaiki  and  Karetai,  before 
they  had  time  to  equip  themselves  properly  for  the 
struggle.  Their  object  in  hurrying  away  was  to  surprise 
Te  Eauparaha,  who  made  a  practice  of  visiting  the  lagoons 
near  the  mouth  of  the  Wairau  river  every  year  at  that 
particular  time,  which  was  the  moulting  season  of 
paradise  ducks  and  the  other  waterfowl,  which  he  went 
there  to  procure.  These  birds  after  being  plucked  and 
cooked  were  packed  in  vessels  formed  out  of  large  kelp 
leaves,  protected  on  the  outside  with  strips  of  totara 
bark  ;  the  vessels  so  formed  being  air-tight  preserved  the 
contents  for  a  long  time. 

The  Kaiapohian  expedition  which  has  ever  since  been 
known  as  Oraumoa-iti  (small  Oraumoa)  in  contradistinc- 
tion to  a  subsequent  expedition  sent  up  for  the  same 


purpose,  called  Oraumoa-nui  (or  great  Oraumoa)  was 
within  an  ace  of  accomplishing  its  object.  It  arrived  on 
the  spot  along  the  coast  where  Rauparaha  meant  to  land, 
a  few  hours  before  he  reached  it,  and  having  concealed 
their  canoes,  they  placed  a  number  of  men  in  ambush  in 
the  woods,  close  to  the  beach  ;  but  owing  to  one  of 
Rauparaha's  men  finding  some  trace  of  recent  visitors  at 
a  short  distance  from  high  water  mark,  he  gave  the 
alarm,  and  though  the  southern  men  rushed  from  their 
places  of  concealment,  and  attacked  Rauparaha's  force, 
they  only  succeeded  in  killing  a  few  of  them.  The  old 
chief  escaped  by  hiding  in  the  kelp  near  the  rocks,  till 
one  of  his  canoes,  still  afloat,  approached  near  enough 
for  him  to  get  on  board.  Paora  Taki,  the  well-known 
native  assessor  at  Rapaki,  who  wras  with  the  expedition, 
recognised  Te  Rauparaha,  and  might  have  killed  him  as  he 
brushed  past  him  on  his  way  to  the  water,  if  he  had 
only  possessed  a  better  weapon  than  a  sharpened  stake 
to  assault  him  with. 

The  Kaiapohians  who  did  not  think  it  prudent  to 
continue  the  pursuit  of  their  enemies,  who  had  recrossed 
the  Straits,  returned  home  to  reorganize  and  recruit 
their  forces.  A  few  months  afterwards,  a  second  ex- 
pedition numbering  four  hundred  warriors,  under  the 
command  of  Taiaroa,  started  for  Cook's  Strait  in  a 
flotilla  of  canoes  and  boats.  They  proceeded  along  the 
coast  as  far  as  Queen  Charlotte's  Sound,  and  at  the  head 
of  it  they  met  a  large  force  of  Rauparaha's  men,  whom 
they  immediately  attacked.  The  ground  was  very  broken 
and  wooded,  and  only  a  portion  of  the  men  on  both  sides 
got  into  action.  Towards  evening  the  northern  men 
withdrew  from  the  place,  and  the  southerners  claimed 
the  victory. 


For  some  days  in  succession,  encounters  between  the 
forces  took  place  with  varying  results.  In  one  of  these 
engagements  which  took  place  on  a  steep  hill-side  two 
warriors  were  engaged  in  mortal  combat,  in  a  position 
where  their  movements  attracted  the  notice  of  their 
respective  sides,  who  watched  with  eager  interest  the 
struggle  between  them.  Clasped  in  a  close  embrace, 
each  one  strove  with  desperate  efforts  to  throw  the 
other  down.  Te  Hikoia,  the  southern  man,  feeling  that 
his  antagonist,  Te  Kaurapa,  had  the  advantage  over  him 
from  his  being  on  the  upper  side  of  the  sloping  ground, 
and  that  he  was  about  to  be  overcome,  cried  out, 
"  Iwikau  e  !  "  I  am  going  ! 

His  nephewr,  who  was  armed  with  a  fowling  piece, 
hearing  his  cry  of  distress,  flew  to  his  assistance,  calling 
out  as  he  ran  towards  him,  "  disentangle  yourself,  throw 
him  over  your  hip  ;  "  his  object  in  giving  the  direction, 
being  to  get  a  shot  at  the  enemy  without  endangering 
his  relative's  life.  Hikoia,  by  a  supreme  effort,  succeeded 
in  doing  what  he  was  advised ;  and  Iwikau  seizing  the 
opportunity,  shot  his  uncle's  opponent,  who  fell  dead  at 
his  feet ;  and  then  seeing  the  fallen  man's  weapon 
(maipi)  lying  on  the  ground,  he  picked  it  up,  and  carried 
it  off  as  a  trophy. 

Te  Eauparaha,  who  witnessed  from  a  short  distance  the 
whole  transaction,  remarked  to  his  companions,  "ikia 
atu  ano  "  (I  told  you  it  would  be  so),  alluding  to  the 
advice  he  had  given  his  men  not  to  come  to  close 
quarters  with  their  Ngaitahu  foes,  whom  they  knew 
from  past  experience  to  be  desperate  fellows  at  a  hand- 
to-hand  encounter. 

The  scarcity  of  food  compelled  the  southern  warriors 
to  return  before  they  were  able  to  accomplish  anything 



decisive.  Shortly  afterwards,  circumstances  occurred 
which  led  to  the  total  cessation  of  hostilities  between 
the  two  parties.  Rauparaha's  tribe  quarrelled  with  their 
neighbours  and  allies,  the  Ngatiawa,  and  fearing  a 
coalition  being  formed  against  him,  the  wily  chief  of 
Ngatitoa  resolved  to  make  peace  with  Ngaitahu ;  and 
selecting  the  chiefs  of  highest  rank  from  amongst  his 
Kaiapohia  prisoners,  he  sent  them  home  under  the 
charge  of  an  honourable  escort,  desiring  them  to  use 
their  influence  with  their  friends  to  accept  his  friendly 
overtures.  The  unexpected  return  of  Momo,  a  chief  of 
very  high  rank,  and  greatly  beloved  on  account  of  his 
amiable  disposition,  and  the  noted  Iwikau,  and  other 
valued  leaders  of  the  tribe,  accompanied  by  a  band  of 
Rauparaha's  trusted  friends,  whose  lives  were  now  in 
their  power  to  spare  or  take  as  they  pleased,  won  the 
goodwill  of  the  Kaiapohians,  who  accepted  the  terms 
offered  to  them,  and  made  peace  with  their  late  foes. 

But  though  peace  was  established  the  bulk  of  the 
Kaiapohian  prisoners  carried  to  the  north  were  still 
kept  in  bondage.  There  were  influences  at  work  how- 
ever on  their  behalf,  which  soon  resulted  in  their  release 
and  return  to  their  own  land.  The  humanizing  in- 
fluences of  the  Christian  religion,  which  was  first 
introduced  to  the  Maori  people  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Bay  of  Islands  by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Marsden,  in  1814, 
had  gradually  penetrated  the  country,  till  in  1839  it 
reached  the  tribes  over  which  Te  Rauparaha  ruled,  who 
as  soon  as  they  embraced  the  Christian  faith,  released 
all  their  prisoners,  and  assisted  them  to  return  home. 

When  New  Zealand  was  proclaimed  a  British  Colony 
in  1840,  several  of  the  Kaiapoi  chiefs  attached  their 
names  to  the  treaty  of  Waitangi,  by  which  the  Maoris 

The  Kaiapoi  Monument. 


transferred  the  rights  of  sovereignty  to  the  English 
Crown,  the  deed  having  been  brought  to  them  for 
signature  by  the  captain  of  H.M.S.  Herald. 

In  1843,  Tamihana,  the  only  surviving  son  of  Te 
Rauparaha,  and  his  cousin  Matene  te  Whiwhi,  inspired 
with  the  noble  desire  to  repair  as  far  as  they  could  the 
injuries  inflicted  upon  the  Ngaitahu  by  their  relatives, 
visited  the  South  Island,  where  they  spent  two  years, 
during  which  period  they  visited  every  Maori  settlement 
in  it,  for  the  purpose  of  imparting  to  the  inhabitants 
a  knowledge  of  the  Christian  faith,  which  they  had  both 
embraced :  having  been  baptized  shortly  before  under- 
taking their  mission  by  Mr.  Hadfield.  During  the  whole 
time  spent  amongst  the  Ngaitahu,  these  two  young 
men  were  in  momentary  danger  of  being  put  to  death, 
either  to  gratify  the  feeling  of  hatred  cherished  in  many 
hearts  towards  their  kinsmen,  or  by  someone  who  felt 
impelled  by  the  ancient  custom  of  blood  feud,  not  to 
miss  such  an  opportunity  of  avenging  the  death  of  'dear 
relatives  who  had  perished  by  the  hands  of  Te  Eau- 
paraha's  tribesmen,  during  their  various  raids  on  the 
south.  The  heroic  courage  and  fervent  zeal  of  the  two 
young  missionaries  was  rewarded  by  the  conversion  of 
the  entire  population,  who  were  won  over  to  the^ 
Christian  faith  by  witnessing  in  their  conduct  and 
demeanour,  the  evidence  of  its  divine  power  to  change 
hate  into  love,  and  the  bitterest  enemies  into  the  firmest 

In  1848,  the  chiefs  of  Kaiapoi,  and  other  sections  of 
the  tribe  assembled  at  Akaroa  to  meet  Mr.  Commissioner 
Kemp,  who  had  arrived  there  in  "  H.M.S.  Fly,"  for  the 
purpose  of  negotiating  with  them  for  the  purchase  of 
their  lands.  The  negotiations  were  successful,  and  Mr, 


Mantell  was  sent  shortly  afterwards  to  survey  the 
portions  which  the  Maoris  had  reserved  from  sale  for 
their  own  occupation.  Amongst  the  reserves  made  was 
the  site  of  the  old  Kaiapoi  Pa,  to  which  Mr.  Mantell 
referred  as  follows  in  his  despatch  to  the  Governor, 
written  in  1848: — "I  have  guaranteed  to  the  natives 
that  the  site  of  the  ancient  pa,  Kaiapoi,  shall  be  reserved 
to  her  Majesty's  Government,  to  be  held  sacred  for  both 
Europeans  and  Natives."  As  long  as  the  old  Maoris 
lived  who  regarded  with  veneration  the  spot  associated 
with  so  many  proud  and  pleasant,  as  well  as  so  many 
sad  and  humiliating  memories  of  the  past,  the  site  of  the 
old  fortress  was  not  willingly  and  knowingly  desecrated. 

But  since  their  removal  by  death,  their  degenerate 
representatives  have  shown  an  utter  want  of  decent 
respect  for  the  site  of  the  ancestral  home  of  their  tribe, 
and  for  the  sake  of  securing  a  paltry  sum  paid  as  rent, 
they  have  allowed  an  unsightly  fence  to  be  erected  right 
across  the  front  wall  of  the  pa,  which  was  before  that  in 
a  state  of  excellent  preservation,  and  cattle  to  be  de- 
pastured within  the  enclosure,  the  result  being  that  the 
walls  have  been  trampled  down,  and  the  ditches  filled  in 
and  many  interesting  marks  of  its  former  occupants 
obliterated.  There  is  still  time  to  rescue  what  remains 
to  mark  a  spot  rendered  famous  by  its  past  history — a 
spot  which  will  be  regarded  with  increasing  interest  as 
years  roll  on. 

Some  years  ago  the  Kaiapoi  Maoris  erected  a 
stone  monument,  on  which  the  chief  incidents  connected 
with  the  history  of  the  pa  were  inscribed. 

The  story  of  the  Old  Pa  is  ended,  and  if  it  has  been 
properly  told,  the  reader  will  concur  with  the  writer  in 


the  opinion  that  amongst  those  whose  deeds  deserve  to 
be  kept  in  remembrance  by  the  people  of  this  country, 
are  the  brave  defenders  of 




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DEC  1  3  200